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Uganda Members of Parliament arrested

Virunga Mountains

Two Members of Parliament were yesterday charged with murder and sent on remand at Luzira Prisons. Ronald Reagan Okumu (Aswa), a deputy executive coordinator for the Forum for Democratic Change (FDC), and Michael Nyeko Ocula (Kilak) were arrested as they walked from Parliament to the CID to make statements, on the Speaker’s advice. However, Police spokesman Assuman Mugenyi said the MPs were arrested at the CID headquarters over the February 12, 2002 murder of Alfred Bongomin, the LC3 chairman of Pabbo camp in Gulu.He said investigations were complete and that the accused would appear in court today, but the opposition MPs insisted that they had already been charged. “We have been investigating this matter. Our investigations are complete,” Mugenyi said. Okumu described the arrest and charges as political manoeuvre by the Movement to intimidate the opposition. Opposition MPs rushed to Buganda Road Court on learning of the arrest. Bugweri South MP Abdu Katuntu said, “The Movement is becoming more desperate. Their buffoonery has just started. They have been coaching an LRA returnee on what to say. We expected this and it only energises our struggle against dictatorship.” Katuntu, an FDC official, said in tramping up charges, the Government hoped to “intimidate and get opposition MPs out of circulation for one year.” “No intimidation,” he said, “will make us waiver in our fight.” Bugabula South MP Salaamu Musumba said she was saddened by the inability of the Speaker to protect MPs and by the breach of parliamentary privilege. She said members may not be arrested on their way to or from Parliament. “These guys were got from Parliament,” she said. She said the charge sheet had been amended and that the court sat after 5:00pm, past the usual working hours. “It took three minutes in court,” she said. Terego MP Kassiano Wadri said he was shocked that Okumu and Ocula were in court. “They say the crime was committed in 2002 but claim investigations are not complete and that it was committed in Gulu. Why don’t you take them to Gulu High Court? What is all this?” he said. Mugenyi said three other suspects, Steven Olanya, Alex Otim and Walter Laryang, were arrested two weeks ago over the same case and remanded in Luzira. Prior to their arrest Okumu and Ocula were required to report to the CID headquarters at 9:00am but did not. At lunchtime, Okumu said he was not aware of the summons. “The Speaker has just notified me of a letter from the CID. He apologised for not passing the letter to me,” Okumu said. He said the Speaker gave him CID chief Elizabeth Kuteesa’s telephone number. “Kuteesa insisted that the letter was in my pigeon hole. I told her there was nothing because I had just been to my pigeon hole,” he said. “It is really a shame,” she said. “This is a very disastrous development because for me my interpretation is that Acholi will die everywhere, from Kampala they die of the bad roads, in Gulu, Kony is killing them its not fair.” Mr Norbert Mao (Gulu Municipality) said, “As a matter of protest, we are going to boycott Parliament. Can you imagine the Speaker even advised Reagan to go to the police?” Mr Martin Wandera (Workers) said it was extremely regrettable though its no surprise “because this administration has demonstrated how callous it can be.” He added: “For government to behave in a manner that made some of the people go to the bush is extremely unfortunate. To use the justice system to harass the opposition is extremely unfortunate.” Walubiri who represents the duo said it was irregular that police wrote a letter through the Speaker and it (letter) was not given to the MPs in time. He said the Speaker adjourned the House prematurely without any notice. “Let me hope he was not a party to the whole thing,” Walubiri said. He said it was also irregular that the MPs reported to the CID headquarters and were immediately rushed to court, charged and remanded. “I think this is highly irregular. Ordinarily members of Parliament ought not to be subjected to this kind of process,” he said. The two MPs were planning a big demonstration to end the war in northern uganda, but the cunning regime of Yoweri museveni benefits from that war and the demo was to work against the regime. Meanwhile another 150 MPs have officially enlisted with a notorius para-military group(KAP).

Free Uganda


  • Dear ugandans,
    I'm very disappointed with the present situation in uganda. I once respected your president but now I am very convinced he's another Robert mugabe, who uses intimidation and violance to preach his model of democracy. The opposition should take to the streets before you all end up in prison. This time your international friends will not let you down.

    "MPs protest Okumu, Ocula arrest, charge
    By Monitor Reporters
    Opposition leaders plan demonstration today

    KAMPALA — The arrest of two members of Parliament on murder charges took centre stage yesterday in the House as legislators took turns to condemn the act.

    Mr Reagan Okumu (Aswa County MP), also the deputy executive co-ordinator of the opposition Forum for Democratic Change (FDC) and Mr Michael Nyeko Ocula (Kilak County MP) were arrested on Wednesday, charged with murder and sent on remand at Luzira Prisons.

    Kashari County MP, Maj. John Kazoora said he was not surprised by the arrests, and claimed that President Yoweri Museveni at one time said he hates Okumu and Ocula.
    Kazoora cited a recent incident where the President said, “I and Matembe should come back to the Movement or else we will get hit by a tornado. Does the President control heaven? Certainly he knows the tornado he is talking about. Tomorrow if I am arrested for treason, I will know the tornado that hit me,” Kazoora told the House.

    Bugweri County MP, Mr Abdu Katuntu, said the arrests were politically instigated.
    “This is political persecution. We (opposition) have tried not to degenerate to extremism. Don’t push us to the wall,” Katuntu said.

    The FDC officials have called a demonstration to protest the arrest of the two MPs.
    The two are accused of murdering Alfred Bongomin on February 12, 2002 at Pabbo in Gulu district.
    The Speaker, Mr Edward Ssekandi said he knew of the arrest on Wednesday night (about 10 pm). He said he immediately called the Prime Minister, Prof. Apolo Nsibambi to register his concern. “I did not know of the arrest until 10 pm.

    Earlier in the day, I had informed the two MPs about a letter I received from the CID Director [Kuteesa] and advised them to get in touch with her,” Ssekandi said.
    Ssekandi dismissed as false accusations that he adjourned the House prematurely to facilitate the arrest of the MPs. He said he adjourned the House at around 4.30 pm to allow MPs attend a mass in honour of the new Pope Benedict XVI at Lubaga Cathedral.

    The MPs were yesterday largely responding to a statement by Internal Affairs Minister Dr Ruhakana Rugunda about the arrest. Rugunda told the House that the murder of Bongomin was a premeditated criminal act. He said that investigations indicated that the murder plot was hatched in Okumu’s house in Gulu.

    The late Bongomin, formerly a Movement chairman of Pabbo sub-county was killed by unknown gunmen on February 12, 2002. An eye-witness account said that Bongomin’s body bore two or three bullet wounds on the head and chest.
    Said Rugunda, “Hon. Okumu and Hon. Ocula are said to have participated in the meetings.”

    Rugunda said there was sufficient evidence to charge the MPs after the Director of Public Prosecutions had completed inquiries into the case.
    Mr Katuntu said, “Is it a coincidence for the same MPs who were beaten up to be arrested?” This country belongs to all of us. Nobody shall persecute us and get away with it,” he said on top of his voice.

    Gulu Municipality MP Norbert Mao said that a plot had been hatched to also include him among the suspects for the murder of Bongomin.
    “Col. Otema [head of intelligence in northern Uganda] tried to link me to the murder. It is insanity !” he said.

    Mao said these were trumped up charges, which were politically motivated to harass government opponents. Said Mao: “Museveni and his government have pushed us too far. Government should release all political prisoners. Who knows who will be the next prison victim tomorrow?”

    Agago County MP, Prof. Ogenga Latigo, said, “All the plans are hatched within Acholi.”
    Many MPs in protest carried placards in the House reading “We say no to political persecution.”
    Bugabula South MP, Ms Saalamu Musumba, carried her placard throughout the debate.
    The other placards read, “End Sadism. Free Acholi People From Mental Torture.”
    Okumu and Ocula appeared in the Buganda Road Chief Magistrate’s Court at 4.45pm.

    They were not allowed to enter any plea. The two MPs are expected to reappear in court this morning.
    The two MPs are jointly charged with Mr Steven Otim Olanya, an LCI chairman of Green Valley Sub-ward in Gulu, Mr Ochan Layang of Ayeri and Mr David Ocheng, a local councillor in the same district.
    The three men were separately charged on April 6 before the same court and remanded at Luzira.

    Several legislators yesterday visited the two MPs at Luzira Upper Prison. Okumu and Ocula said they are politically harassed because they belong to the opposition. “We won’t accept this kind of intimidation,” the two said.

    Meanwhile, the opposition Forum for Democratic Change (FDC) party announced yesterday it was calling for civil disobedience and demonstrations to protest harassment of its supporters, reports Charles Mwanguhya Mpagi.

    The party said its members and those of other opposition parties will demonstrate today to show solidarity with the two MPs who are also officials of the party. The six major opposition parties were by last evening also preparing a letter calling on the donors to freeze funding to the government of President Yoweri Museveni.

    The FDC spokesman, Mr Wafula Oguttu said the charges were trumped up as a means to harass the opposition. He told a press conference at FDC offices that the charges against the two MPs are political, not criminal.

    “The arrest is the beginning of an orchestrated campaign against the opposition and not simply a random act or just vendetta against the two honourable members - Reagan Okumu and Michael Ocula - by the government,” Oguttu said.

    The MPs’ lawyer, Mr Yusuf Nsibambi, said the MPs were not allowed legal representation and their arrest, production in court and detention in a record number of hours was conducted in a fashion that showed government wanted to keep them away for long.

    Oguttu said all the opposition parties were in talks to mobilise supporters to show solidarity with the arrested MPs. “We are working together with the G6, right now meetings are going on. We are going to organise people to show solidarity with our colleagues,” he said, “we are organising something massive to show that we are not happy with the government.”

    Oguttu said that calling on donors to temporarily freeze funding to government will prove to President Museveni that democracy is the only option and that terror will not be tolerated.

    “We call upon the diplomatic community and Uganda’s international development partners to move beyond making statements of concern about the state of democracy in Uganda,” he said. By Monitor Reporters

    KAMPALA — The arrest of two members of Parliament on murder charges took centre stage yesterday in the House as legislators took turns to condemn the act.
    Mr Reagan Okumu (Aswa County MP), also the deputy executive co-ordinator of the opposition Forum for Democratic Change (FDC) and Mr Michael Nyeko Ocula (Kilak County MP) were arrested on Wednesday, charged with murder and sent on remand at Luzira Prisons.

    Kashari County MP, Maj. John Kazoora said he was not surprised by the arrests, and claimed that President Yoweri Museveni at one time said he hates Okumu and Ocula.
    Kazoora cited a recent incident where the President said, “I and Matembe should come back to the Movement or else we will get hit by a tornado. Does the President control heaven? Certainly he knows the tornado he is talking about. Tomorrow if I am arrested for treason, I will know the tornado that hit me,” Kazoora told the House.

    Bugweri County MP, Mr Abdu Katuntu, said the arrests were politically instigated.
    “This is political persecution. We (opposition) have tried not to degenerate to extremism. Don’t push us to the wall,” Katuntu said.
    The FDC officials have called a demonstration to protest the arrest of the two MPs.
    The two are accused of murdering Alfred Bongomin on February 12, 2002 at Pabbo in Gulu district.

    The Speaker, Mr Edward Ssekandi said he knew of the arrest on Wednesday night (about 10 pm). He said he immediately called the Prime Minister, Prof. Apolo Nsibambi to register his concern. “I did not know of the arrest until 10 pm.

    Earlier in the day, I had informed the two MPs about a letter I received from the CID Director [Kuteesa] and advised them to get in touch with her,” Ssekandi said.
    Ssekandi dismissed as false accusations that he adjourned the House prematurely to facilitate the arrest of the MPs. He said he adjourned the House at around 4.30 pm to allow MPs attend a mass in honour of the new Pope Benedict XVI at Lubaga Cathedral.

    The MPs were yesterday largely responding to a statement by Internal Affairs Minister Dr Ruhakana Rugunda about the arrest. Rugunda told the House that the murder of Bongomin was a premeditated criminal act. He said that investigations indicated that the murder plot was hatched in Okumu’s house in Gulu.

    The late Bongomin, formerly a Movement chairman of Pabbo sub-county was killed by unknown gunmen on February 12, 2002. An eye-witness account said that Bongomin’s body bore two or three bullet wounds on the head and chest.
    Said Rugunda, “Hon. Okumu and Hon. Ocula are said to have participated in the meetings.”

    Rugunda said there was sufficient evidence to charge the MPs after the Director of Public Prosecutions had completed inquiries into the case.
    Mr Katuntu said, “Is it a coincidence for the same MPs who were beaten up to be arrested?” This country belongs to all of us. Nobody shall persecute us and get away with it,” he said on top of his voice.

    Gulu Municipality MP Norbert Mao said that a plot had been hatched to also include him among the suspects for the murder of Bongomin.
    “Col. Otema [head of intelligence in northern Uganda] tried to link me to the murder. It is insanity !” he said.

    Mao said these were trumped up charges, which were politically motivated to harass government opponents. Said Mao: “Museveni and his government have pushed us too far. Government should release all political prisoners. Who knows who will be the next prison victim tomorrow?”

    Agago County MP, Prof. Ogenga Latigo, said, “All the plans are hatched within Acholi.”
    Many MPs in protest carried placards in the House reading “We say no to political persecution.”

    Bugabula South MP, Ms Saalamu Musumba, carried her placard throughout the debate.
    The other placards read, “End Sadism. Free Acholi People From Mental Torture.”
    Okumu and Ocula appeared in the Buganda Road Chief Magistrate’s Court at 4.45pm.
    They were not allowed to enter any plea. The two MPs are expected to reappear in court this morning.

    The two MPs are jointly charged with Mr Steven Otim Olanya, an LCI chairman of Green Valley Sub-ward in Gulu, Mr Ochan Layang of Ayeri and Mr David Ocheng, a local councillor in the same district.
    The three men were separately charged on April 6 before the same court and remanded at Luzira.

    Several legislators yesterday visited the two MPs at Luzira Upper Prison. Okumu and Ocula said they are politically harassed because they belong to the opposition. “We won’t accept this kind of intimidation,” the two said.

    Meanwhile, the opposition Forum for Democratic Change (FDC) party announced yesterday it was calling for civil disobedience and demonstrations to protest harassment of its supporters, reports Charles Mwanguhya Mpagi.

    The party said its members and those of other opposition parties will demonstrate today to show solidarity with the two MPs who are also officials of the party. The six major opposition parties were by last evening also preparing a letter calling on the donors to freeze funding to the government of President Yoweri Museveni.

    The FDC spokesman, Mr Wafula Oguttu said the charges were trumped up as a means to harass the opposition. He told a press conference at FDC offices that the charges against the two MPs are political, not criminal.

    “The arrest is the beginning of an orchestrated campaign against the opposition and not simply a random act or just vendetta against the two honourable members - Reagan Okumu and Michael Ocula - by the government,” Oguttu said.

    The MPs’ lawyer, Mr Yusuf Nsibambi, said the MPs were not allowed legal representation and their arrest, production in court and detention in a record number of hours was conducted in a fashion that showed government wanted to keep them away for long.

    Oguttu said all the opposition parties were in talks to mobilise supporters to show solidarity with the arrested MPs. “We are working together with the G6, right now meetings are going on. We are going to organise people to show solidarity with our colleagues,” he said, “we are organising something massive to show that we are not happy with the government.”

    Oguttu said that calling on donors to temporarily freeze funding to government will prove to President Museveni that democracy is the only option and that terror will not be tolerated.

    “We call upon the diplomatic community and Uganda’s international development partners to move beyond making statements of concern about the state of democracy in Uganda,” he said. "

  • Dear fellow citizens of the uganda

    I know as you also very well know it is not surprising to learn, hear, see, read or find out that Hon. Reagan Okumu MP for Aswa County, and his co MP for Kilak County, Mr. Hon. Michael Nyeko Ocula was arrested by the Uganda government security and remanded in Luzira Prison. This is not a new thing happening to these Members of parliament coming from Acholi region, because some few months ago the two MP were beaten, humiliated, embarrassed by the UPDF soldiers for the reason that they have gone to consult their people in the displacement camp in the regions they are representing in the parliament.

    Secondly, few months ago, Hon. Reagan Okumu wrote to Hon. Ruhakana Rugunda, Minister of Internal Affairs and Hon. Amama Mbabazi, Minister for Defence drawing their attention to the rampant violation of human right in the entire Acholi regions by the UPDFsoldiers. In the same letter, Reagan pointed out clearly the brutality, open killing of his people, unlawful arrest, beating, detention of his people in Acholiland. He also stated clearly the death threat he himself is experiencing in the hands of the UPDF.

    Is this arrest the response to Mr. Okumu’s letter? Were these soldiers arrested and taken the court of law for the crime they committing? If few months ago Ofwono Opondo shot and killed somebody, is he also going to charge for murder? These are what the two Minister should tell us.

    Seeing Mr. Okumu Reagan’s letter below to the two ministers, Makes me conclude that there is a lot of double standard being played by Government


    P.O BOX 7178, KAMPALA
    TEL.348584, FAX. 342364,

    Hon. Amama Mbabazi,
    Minister of Defence.
    The Republic of Uganda.

    Hon. Ruhakana Rugunda,
    Minister of Internal Affairs
    The Republic of Uganda

    Dear Ministers,


    I would like to seriously draw your attention to the rampant violation of human rights by some section of the UPDF. I draw your attention in particular to the UPDF 11 battalion. The following are some of the extreme reported cases and there are others like beatings that seem to be normal now: -
    -On the 9/2/2005 Owiny P.Oneka of Paduny parish in Awach sub-county Aswa county was shot by UPDF from his house in Awach Camp.
    -On 15/2/2005 Nyeko Batulumayo of Paduny parish,Awach subcounty Aswa county was gunned down by UPDF.
    -On 18/2.2005 Ayella Vincent was killed in Awach Camp by UPDF.
    -On 18/2/2005 Kidega Richard a teacher of Olel P7 was killed by UPDF.

    -On 23/2/2005 AJ Opoka of Pagik was killed by UPDF
    -1/3/2005 Nyero David from Awach Camp was beaten to near death by UPDF-HE IS IN HOSPITAL.
    -2/3/2005 One Ave was killed in Awach camp area by UPDF.
    -19/2/2005 Odong Binoni of Pagik camp was tortured to near death by UPDF
    -5/3/2005 Oneka Kenneth of Pagik Camp was shot dead by the UPDF
    -5/3/2005 AbuOpoka ’min’ Ouna of Pagik was killed by UPDF for being the mother of a suspected rebel collaborator.
    At this rate with the many tortures and beatings, 11 Battalion will reduce our population greatly if you do not act. This same matter has been reported to the fourth division PC.

    Secondly I would like to draw your attention to the militarized rule of law and politicized detention of people without trial of people opposed to NRMO party in the entire Acholi sub-region. A week ago Mr.Orach Otim was arrested by UPDF from Pabbo camp and taken to Gulu military barrack where he is being detain-he is told that if he joins the movement (NRMO) then he would be release. Yesterday the Chairman LC1 of green valley in Gulu Mr.Olanya Stephen were arrested together with the LCV councilor of Lamogi Mr.Penytoo David by police on an alleged charge of attempting murder which was the right procedure but by 300pm they were taken away by UPDF from police custody. This in particular is worrying given the fact that the two were arrested by the state in 2002 on allegation of murder and treason only to be set free after more than one year of detention and torture when the state withdrew the case. This is part of the frame up charges because the last time state officials asked them to accept amnesty and support NRMO, which they refused, and to date this is their major crime. If the state has a case-take them to court and prison not UPDF barracks. Further to this Col.Otema Charles has been threatening these people after their first release with another nightmare if they dare continue with the opposition politics. Col. Otema Charles is openly campaigning for President Museveni and his third term project with serious threats to people opposed to that. From my sources, Col.Otema Charles is allegedly threatening death to the opposition leaders including me. He is further being allege to be planning to use former LRA rebels in his allege project. For this reason since there is no smoke without fire this is a serious warning signal, which you should seriously, investigate this matter. Mean while my safety and that of other leaders remain the responsibility of the state.

    Thirdly Hon. Ministers, there is a high court standing order for UPDF division four to release the body of Peter Oloya who was killed by UPDF while on a night raid on 16/9/2002 where 22 prisoners were forcefully removed from Gulu central prison and they were taken and unlawfully detained at UPDF barracks for over 3 months until a high court order demanded for their transfer to civil prison before the state as usual dropped their murder/treason charges.

    This matters Hon.Ministers, I trust that you are senior and competent enough to handle because it does not only expose government in serious violation of human rights but as a government engaged in a mockery of a transition to multi-party democracy where state institutions are not fused with the interest of the ruling party.

    Thank you.
    Yours in struggle for good governance.



    Seeing Mr. Okumu Reagan’s letter above to the two ministers, Makes me conclude that there is a lot of double standard being played by Government.

    Nyeko Christ

  • I do believe that the 2 Honourables were becoming a voice for the silent majority and the NRM had to sop them! Uganda is becoming a dangerous place for those that dare speak out

  • Uganda is becoming quite un predictable. With the President's desire for the fifth term in office, he is ready to do any thing to maintain himself in power. Mr. Museveni is a typical Machiavellian politician. Unless the international community intervenes, Ugandans are going to suffer drastically. Museveni no longer respects the rule of law which he claims to have fought for in the bush. The donors must wake up and look at the plight of Ugandans.

  • History is about to repeat itself if not man is repeating history. It is quite unfortunate that despite the fact that our current political leaders are well versed with the political history of this country, they have wantonly decided to choke all the avenues of democracy. The arrest of Honourables Michael Ochula and Reagan Okumu provide more questions than answers. One wonders the reason as to why these people were not arrested in 2002 when they are alleged to have committed the crime? The rules of natural justice hold that justice delayed is indeed justice denied. As a matter of fact in a situation like this, one has all the reasons to smell a rat. But again, how many criminals have been shielded by this regime. Just months ago, the spokes person of the NRM-O and Director of information at the Movement secretariat shot a suspected thief. What was done to him? Ugandans need to see justice done. We need to see equal treatment of all Ugandans for thats when one would feel proud to be Ugandan. Of course, I don't condone murder if the two honourables committed it but I highly doubt. At the moment the two senior citizens are innocent until proved guilty. Unfortunately, in Uganda President Museveni behaves like he is the law, the judiciary, justice, the state and evry thing. And I am quite sure, if these MPs were third termists, they wouldn't be in prison. One is left wondering whether this is not political persecution. What is so annoying is why all this is done to the Acholi who suffered under Amin and under Obote as if these people annoyed God. Sincerely, God should listen to the plight of his people.

  • Uganda recorded 80,000 deaths from malaria, half of these children. Malaria costs Uganda more than $347 million a year. But when public health officials decided to begin a DDT spraying campaign, they immediately encountered opposition from USAID. Officials were also warned that Europe and the United States might ban imports of Ugandan fish and agricultural products.

  • Transformational Leadership
    Basic ideas of leadership are about power and its use, about control of resources, and how they are disposed, initiatives in social interpretation, sensemaking and shaping of meaning and the place of individuals in the context of social control options like the law. [1] Consideration of leadership has moved through notions about heroes, attention to traits, context and advocacy of the importance of the leader having vision. Whilst some considered leaders were born, others developed ways of training leaders. In 1990s as some continued to argue that crafting strategy was the principal task of the leader others saw that creating the climate in which followers could achieve more than their best was the main game.
    In the 1970s through the 80s organisations were seen to be facing the dilemma of employee commitment. [2] Jay Conger (University of Southern California) has observed that in the midst of their change efforts, companies were resorting to extensive downsizing as well as to new organisational arrangements such as flatter hierarchies and strategic business units. While often improving bottom-line performance, these initiatives took their toll on worker satisfaction and empowerment. In the process, the old social contract of long-term employment in return for employee loyalty was broken. The net result was the disenfranchising of many in the workforce. Moreover, this occurred just at the moment when corporations were demanding ever-greater performance and commitment from employees.
    For companies, the challenge became a question of how to orchestrate transformational change while simultaneously building employee morale and commitment, a seemingly contradictory endeavour. In the view of Conger, these events had a direct impact on the study of leadership. It turned attention to the senior leaders in the belief that they possessed the power and resources to effectively implement significant organisational change.
    In the late 1970's an approach to studies of leadership emerged which engaged a number of researchers in the USA and expanded to investigate the extent to which a new theory of leadership behaviour, based first on studies of politicians, could be applied internationally, was more valid in circumstances of crisis, applied to people at different levels and was true for both public and private organisations.
    Transformational Leadership Theory emerged from considerations by James McGregor Burns [3] of the histories of various political leaders. Burns identified two types of leadership style, transformational and transactional leadership. Transformational leaders engaged with followers and sought new ways of working so as to achieve more for both themselves and followers than they would ordinarily. Transactional leaders engaged with followers as part of an exchange process that involved tangible rewards for superior performance and mutual support. Burns drew from the literature on traits, leadership styles and research on the behaviour of leaders and followers, as well as his own observations. [4]

    President John F Kennedy once said, "Courage - not complacency - is our need today. Leadership - not salesmanship. And the only valid test of leadership is the ability to lead. Our ends will not be won by rhetoric. We can have faith in the future only if we have faith in ourselves."
    Chinese leader Deng Xiao Ping took his grandson to see Chairman Mao Zeedong. "You may call me Granduncle", said Mao to the little boy. "Oh I couldn't possibly do that", said the child. "Give him an apple," said Deng. "Oh, thank you Granduncle", the little boy chirped. "See what a difference incentives make", said Deng.

    In more detail, the transformational leader was seen as someone who engages with others in such a way that leader and follower raise one another to a higher level of motivation and morality, a level not easily explained by traditional instrumental exchanges. These higher aspirations or goals of the collective group are expected to transcend the individual and result in the achievement of significant change in work unit effectiveness. Burns believed that all managers could be classified by leadership style according to their propensity for transactions with, versus transformation of, subordinates.
    The transactional leader, on the other hand, was seen as operating within the existing system or culture, had a preference for risk avoidance, paid attention to time constraints and efficiency, and generally preferred process over substance as a means for maintaining control. The skilful transactional leader was likely to be effective in stable, predictable environments where charting activity against prior performance is the most successful strategy. This leader prototype was consistent with an equitable leader-member exchange relationship where the leader fulfilled the needs of followers in exchange for performance meeting basic expectations.
    Bernard Bass [5], as much as anyone, has advanced Burns' theories. In Bass' view [6], transformational leaders seek new ways of working, seek opportunities in the face of risk, prefer effective to efficient answers and are less likely to support the status quo. Transformational leaders don't merely react to environmental circumstances, they attempt to shape and create them. They may use transactional strategies when appropriate but tend to use symbolism and imagery to solicit increased effort by raising the level of intellectual awareness about the importance of valued outcomes, by raising or expanding individual needs and by inducing a belief in transcending self-interest for the sake of the team or organisation.
    In 1985 Bass developed an instrument to measure both transactional and transformational leader behaviour and to investigate the nature of the relationship between these leader styles and work unit effectiveness and satisfaction. The resulting instrument, the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ), was conceptually developed and empirically validated to reflect the complementary dimensions of transformational and transactional leadership with sub-scales to further differentiate leader behaviour. [7] The MLQ has since acquired a history of research as the primary quantitative instrument to measure the transformational leadership construct.
    The MLQ has been examined in perhaps more than 100 research studies of leaders in a variety of organisational settings such as manufacturing, the military, educational and religious institutions, and at various levels in the organisation from first line supervisors to senior managers. MLQ scales have been related to a range of effectiveness criteria such as subordinate perceptions of effectiveness, as well as to a variety of organisational measures of performance like supervisory ratings, number of promotion recommendations, performance grades, percent of goals met, pass rate on exams and financial performance of the work unit.
    The factors, the definitions and groupings, have been through a number of changes. It is now accepted that the concept involves four factors exhibited by effective leaders.
    Idealised Influence
    Leaders display conviction; emphasize trust; take stands on difficult issues; present their most important values; and emphasize the importance of purpose, commitment, and the ethical consequences of decision. Such leaders are admired as role models; they generate pride, loyalty, confidence, and alignment around a shared purpose.
    Inspirational Motivation
    Leaders articulate an appealing vision of the future, challenge followers with high standards, talk optimistically and with enthusiasm, and provide encouragement and meaning for what needs to be done.
    Intellectual Stimulation
    Leaders question old assumptions, traditions, and beliefs; stimulate in others new perspectives and ways of doing things; and encourage the expression of ideas and reasons.
    Individualised Consideration
    Leaders deal with others as individuals; consider their individual needs, abilities and aspirations; listen attentively; further their development; advise; and coach.
    The MLQ measures a full range of leadership behaviours, including transactional leadership who may be characterised as engaging in the following behaviours:
    Contingent Reward
    Leaders engage in a constructive path-goal transaction of reward for performance. They clarify expectations, exchange promises and resources, arrange mutually satisfactory agreements, negotiate for resources, exchange assistance for effort, and provide commendations for successful follower performance.
    Active - leaders monitor followers' performance and take corrective action if deviations from standards occur. They enforce rules to avoid mistakes. Passive - leaders fail to intervene until problems become serious. They wait to take action until mistakes are brought to their attention.
    Laissez Faire Leadership
    A non-leadership component - leaders avoid accepting their responsibilities, are absent when needed, fail to follow up requests for assistance, and resist expressing their views on important issues.
    It is asserted that Transformational Leadership positively affects organisational effectiveness, revolves around relationships, which are the core of leadership, can be measured and taught, and is effective across diverse cultures and organisations.
    Bass's conceptualisation of the transformational leader also extended the ideas of Robert House (Wharton School of Business, University of Pennsylvania) who promoted the construct of the charismatic leader by incorporating the individualized consideration and intellectual stimulation aspects. Rather than being dependent on the leader, followers were seen as able to demonstrate free choice behaviour and develop follower autonomy within the overlay of the leader's vision. Thus, true transformational leadership requires employee empowerment, not employee dependence.
    The view that transformational leadership enhances organisational innovation has gained wide popularity among researchers during the past decade. [8] In summary, research has shown that leaders who display the four behaviours of transformational leadership are able to realign their followers' values and norms, promote both personal and organisational changes, and help followers to exceed their initial performance expectations.
    Transformational leaders go beyond exchanging contractual agreements for desired performance by
    actively engaging followers' personal value systems and providing ideological explanations that link followers' identities to the collective identity of their organisation, thereby increasing followers' intrinsic motivation (rather than just providing extrinsic motivation) to perform their job;
    articulating an important vision and mission for the organisation, so increasing followers' understanding of the importance and values associated with desired outcomes; and
    raising the performance expectations of followers so increasing their willingness to transcend their self-interests for the sake of the collective entity.
    Motivated people tend to prefer novel approaches to problem solving. Followers' identification with the organisation's vision, mission, and culture also has been linked to heightened levels of motivation toward higher levels of performance.
    Second, by providing intellectual stimulation, transformational leaders encourage followers to think "out of the box" and to adopt generative and exploratory thinking processes.
    They stimulate their followers to think about old problems in new ways and encourage them to challenge their own values, traditions, and beliefs;
    By showing high expectations and confidence in followers' capabilities, they help to develop followers' commitment to long-term goals, missions, and vision and to shift their focus from short-term and immediate solutions and objectives to long-term and fundamental solutions and objectives.

    A study of unconventional behaviour by leaders in stimulating creativity [9] indicates that such behaviour (e.g., standing on furniture, hanging ideas on clotheslines) significantly interacts with follower perceptions of the leader as a role model for creativity to explain follower creativity. (In other words, unconventional behaviour by leaders attracts attention and stimulates improved performance.) Results also suggest that unconventional behaviour explains variance in group cohesion above and beyond transformational leadership, and that group cohesion interacts with group intrinsic motivation to explain group creative performance. (That is to say, if leaders behave in an unusual manner, especially in groups where intrinsic motivation is high, followers are encouraged to achieve above average results.)
    (In the 1980s at the Royal British Columbia Museum, noted then for its outstanding exhibitions, put the proposed (draft) texts for its exhibition labels on notice boards in corridors for all staff to see and comment on.)
    Other examples of the link between leadership and innovation come from the articles by Rosabeth Moss Kanter on leadership and organisational turnaround and Innovation at the World Bank (see New in Leadership, Management and Organizational Development).
    The issue of transformational leadership and research and development organisations is dealt with further in the essay on what science leadership really means.

    Notwithstanding the very many studies of transformational leadership that have produced important results, the morality of transformational leadership has been sharply questioned, particularly by libertarians, "grass roots" theorists, and organisational development consultants.
    These criticisms have been addressed by arguing that to be truly transformational, leadership must be grounded in moral foundations. [10] "The four components of authentic transformational leadership (idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation and individualized consideration) are contrasted with their counterfeits in dissembling pseudo-transformational leadership on the basis of
    (1) the moral character of the leaders and their concerns for self and others; (2) the ethical values embedded in the leaders' vision, articulation, and program, which followers can embrace or reject; and
    (3) the morality of the processes of social ethical choices and action in which the leaders and followers engage and collectively pursue."
    While transactional leadership manages outcomes and aims for behavioural compliance independent of the ideals a follower may happen to have, transformational leadership is predicated upon the inner dynamics of a freely embraced change of heart in the realm of core values and motivation, upon open-ended intellectual stimulation and a commitment to treating people as ends not mere means [11]. To bring about change, authentic transformational leadership fosters the modal values of honesty, loyalty, and fairness, as well as the end values of justice, equality, and human rights
    One of the conclusions to be drawn from this examination of the theory is that "social distance" is always important to those who wish to be seen as charismatic but are in fact unethical and wish to ensure that they are not seen in that light. The credibility of the leaders suffers when the truth is stretched. Trust in the leaders is risked and ... trust is the single most important variable moderating the effects of transformational leadership on the performance, attitudes, and satisfaction of the followers. [12] Although distant leaders may be able to play with the truth longer than can close, immediate leaders ... the trust so necessary for authentic transformational leadership is lost when leaders are caught in lies, when the fantasies fail to materialize, or when hypocrisies and inconsistencies are exposed. [13]
    Amongst other arguments about leadership, those concerning context have been amongst the most debated. Conger observed that investigations about context and situational factors have been few. Is transformational leadership more important at certain stages of the life cycle of the organisation? Does it apply across cultures? One study which illuminates this is of a school superintendent perceived by her organisation as a charismatic leader. When she later was appointed state commissioner of education that was not how she was seen. Several essential differences were seen between the two contexts. [14]
    In terms of the organisational environment, the person's first context, a school district, was one in crisis whereas in the second context at the state government level there was not a similar state of distress. Authority also differed: as a superintendent she had much more control and autonomy. As commissioner, her number one priority was political loyalty to the governor. She no longer possessed the freedom to undertake actions she deemed necessary. Instead, her actions had to be cleared through the governor's office. Her relationships were also different.
    Whereas the district organisation had been small with limited stakeholders and localized geographically, the agency was large, complex and bureaucratic. As a result, she had little time to build the deep, personal bonds that she had established at the district level. Her impact at the state level was no longer personal and she did not come to be seen as a charismatic leader.
    This study might show that crisis is indeed more receptive to leadership in general and second, there are characteristics of organisations that influence an individual's latitude to take initiative and to build personal relationships that in turn shape perceptions of leadership. More latitude for initiative on the job may result in simply more opportunities to demonstrate leadership. The superintendent's position allowed far more autonomy to act than the commissioner's position. Closer proximity to followers may permit greater relationship building.
    Whereas some research shows little relationship between charismatic leadership and crises other studies have seen organisations as benefiting from charismatic leadership in times of uncertainty. This is particularly so of studies of political leadership. [15] The performance of U.S. presidents was seen by their cabinet members to be strongly related to their charisma. [16]
    Certainly there are differences between different cultures in terms of attributes like uncertainty avoidance, power distance, masculinity-femininity as elaborated by Hofstede [17] in his 25 years of studies of international companies including IBM. Whilst there are several attributes associated with charismatic/transformational leadership which are seen universally as contributing to outstanding leadership this does not preclude differences between cultures in ratings for those attributes; in other words the attributes likely will be enacted differently in different cultures, as shown by the GLOBE studies of Den Hartog and colleagues [18].
    Attributes like motive arouser, foresight, encouraging, communicative, trustworthy, dynamic, positive, and confidence builder are endorsed as contributing to outstanding leadership. Several other charismatic attributes are perceived as culturally contingent. These include enthusiastic, risk taking, ambitious, self-effacing, unique, self-sacrificial, sincere, sensitive, compassionate, and wilful. None of the items universally perceived as impediments to outstanding leadership describe transformational/charismatic leadership. The importance of certain characteristics seems to vary with hierarchical level in the organisation. As demands, tasks and responsibilities at different hierarchical levels are quite different, it seems likely that preferred leader attributes also differ for the different levels.
    Effectiveness of a pattern of behaviour is in part dependent on the hierarchical level of leaders. Top-management is concerned with ends rather than means; middle management with means more than ends and supervisors are instrumental performers [19]. Thus, the implicit theory people hold regarding an effective top-manager or CEO is likely to differ from the implicit theory they hold for an effective supervisor. And followers generally regard leader effectiveness depending on their own values and preferences, those who value extrinsic rewards of work are most satisfied by relationship-oriented leaders whilst those with strong security values are particularly attracted to task-oriented leaders: in other words follower preferences for charismatic leadership are predictable on the basis of the follower values [20]
    The personal view I have that transformational leadership theory is of great significance is based not only on the research conducted using the MLQ but on the substantial support for its underlying propositions found in the work of Kelloway & Barling (all references are found in the Leadership, Management and Governance section), Metcalf & Alimo-Metcalf, Gitell (in her study of Southwest airlines and American airlines), Brown & Posner (in their study of learning and leadership), Carol and Hatakenaka (in their study of the Millstone Nuclear Power Plant - although that study merely points up the importance of building trust in management through attention to staff concerns and the involvement of staff) and a host of others including the substantial studies by Christopher Bartlett (Harvard) and Sumantra Ghoshal (London School of Economics) and Collins & Porras (Built to Last and Good to Great) and studies of the importance of conversations in relation to organisational development (referenced in this section). All these are studies which show the importance of leadership attributes very similar to the four features of transformational leadership.

    [1] Mark F Peterson & James G Hunt, "International Perspectives on International Leadership", The Leadership Quarterly, Vol. 8/3, p203, 29p (1997)
    [2] Jay A. Conger," Charismatic and transformational leadership in organizations: An insider's perspective on these developing streams of research." The Leadership Quarterly, Vol. 10/2, p145, 25p (1999)
    [3] James MacGregor Burns is a Pulitzer Prize-winning Presidential biographer and writer on transformational leadership; his recent books are (with Susan Dunn) The Three Roosevelts: Patrician Leaders Who Transformed America (Grove Atlantic, 2001) and (with Georgia Sorenson), Dead Center: Clinton-Gore Leadership and the Perils of Moderation (Scribner, 1999).
    [4] Kevin B. Lowe & K. Galen Kroeck, "Effectiveness Correlates Of Transformational And Transactional Leadership: A Meta-Analytic Review Of The MLQ Literature", The Leadership Quarterly, Vol. 7/3, p385, 41p (1996)
    [5] Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Management and Director of the Center for Leadership Studies in the School of Management at the State University of New York at Binghamton. He is the founding editor of Leadership Quarterl.
    [6] in Leadership and Performance beyond Expectations, New York: The Free Press (1985), quoted by Lowe & Galen Kroeck (1996)

  • Human Relations
    The six most important words: "I admit I made a mistake."

    The five most important words: "You did a good job."

    The four most important words: "What is your opinion."

    The three most important words: "If you please."

    The two most important words: "Thank you,"

    The one most important word: "We"

    The least most important word: "I"

    - Author unknown Good leaders are made not born. If you have the desire and willpower, you can become an effective leader. Good leaders develop through a never ending process of self-study, education, training, and experience. This guide will help you through that process.
    To inspire your workers into higher levels of teamwork, there are certain things you must be, know, and, do. These do not come naturally, but are acquired through continual work and study. Good leaders are continually working and studying to improve their leadership skills; they are NOT resting on their laurels.

    Before we get started, lets define leadership. Leadership is a process by which a person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent. Leaders carry out this process by applying their leadership attributes, such as beliefs, values, ethics, character, knowledge, and skills. Although your position as a manager, supervisor, lead, etc. gives you the authority to accomplish certain tasks and objectives in the organization, this power does not make you a leader...it simply makes you the boss. Leadership differs in that it makes the followers want to achieve high goals, rather than simply bossing people around.

    Bass' (1989 & 1990) theory of leadership states that there are three basic ways to explain how people become leaders. The first two explain the leadership development for a small number of people. These theories are:

    Some personality traits may lead people naturally into leadership roles. This is the Trait Theory.
    A crisis or important event may cause a person to rise to the occasion, which brings out extraordinary leadership qualities in an ordinary person. This is the Great Events Theory.
    People can choose to become leaders. People can learn leadership skills. This is the Transformational Leadership Theory. It is the most widely accepted theory today and the premise on which this guide is based.
    When a person is deciding if she respects you as a leader, she does not think about your attributes, rather, she observes what you do so that she can know who you really are. She uses this observation to tell if you are a honorable and trusted leader or a self serving person who misuses authority to look good and get promoted. Self-serving leaders are not as effective because their employees only obey them, not follow them. They succeed in many areas because they present a good image to their seniors at the expense of their workers.
    The basis of good leadership is honorable character and selfless service to your organization. In your employees' eyes, your leadership is everything you do that effects the organization's objectives and their well being. Respected leaders concentrate on what they are [be] (such as beliefs and character), what they know (such as job, tasks, and human nature), and what they do (such as implementing, motivating, and provide direction).

    What makes a person want to follow a leader? People want to be guided by those they respect and who have a clear sense of direction. To gain respect, they must be ethical. A sense of direction is achieved by conveying a strong vision of the future.

    The Two Most Important Keys to Effective Leadership
    A Hay's study examined over 75 key components of employee satisfaction. They found that:
    Trust and confidence in top leadership was the single most reliable predictor of employee satisfaction in an organization.
    Effective communication by leadership in three critical areas was the key to winning organizational trust and confidence:
    Helping employees understand the company's overall business strategy.
    Helping employees understand how they contribute to achieving key business objectives.
    Sharing information with employees on both how the company is doing and how an employee's own division is doing - relative to strategic business objectives.
    So in a nutshell -- you must be trustworthy and you have to be able to communicate a vision of where the organization needs to go. The next section, "Principles of Leadership," ties in closely with this key concept.
    Principles of Leadership
    To help you be, know, and do; (U.S. Army, 1973) follow these eleven principles of leadership (later chapters in this guide expand on these and provide tools for implementing them):
    Know yourself and seek self-improvement - In order to know yourself, you have to understand your be, know, and do, attributes. Seeking self-improvement means continually strengthening your attributes. This can be accomplished through self-study, formal classes, reflection, and interacting with others.
    Be technically proficient - As a leader, you must know your job and have a solid familiarity with your employees' tasks.
    Seek responsibility and take responsibility for your actions - Search for ways to guide your organization to new heights. And when things go wrong, they always do sooner or later -- do not blame others. Analyze the situation, take corrective action, and move on to the next challenge.
    Make sound and timely decisions - Use good problem solving, decision making, and planning tools.
    Set the example - Be a good role model for your employees. They must not only hear what they are expected to do, but also see. We must become the change we want to see - Mahatma Gandhi
    Know your people and look out for their well-being - Know human nature and the importance of sincerely caring for your workers.
    Keep your workers informed - Know how to communicate with not only them, but also seniors and other key people.
    Develop a sense of responsibility in your workers - Help to develop good character traits that will help them carry out their professional responsibilities.
    Ensure that tasks are understood, supervised, and accomplished - Communication is the key to this responsibility.
    Train as a team - Although many so called leaders call their organization, department, section, etc. a team; they are not really teams...they are just a group of people doing their jobs.
    Use the full capabilities of your organization - By developing a team spirit, you will be able to employ your organization, department, section, etc. to its fullest capabilities.
    Factors of leadership
    There are four major factors in leadership:

    Different people require different styles of leadership. For example, a new hire requires more supervision than an experienced employee. A person who lacks motivation requires a different approach than one with a high degree of motivation. You must know your people! The fundamental starting point is having a good understanding of human nature, such as needs, emotions, and motivation. You must become to know your employees' be, know, and do attributes.

    You must have a honest understanding of who you are, what you know, and what you can do. Also, note that it is the followers, not the leader who determines if a leader is successful. If they do not trust or lack confidence in their leader, then they will be uninspired. To be successful you have to convince your followers, not yourself or your superiors, that you are worthy of being followed.

    You lead through two-way communication. Much of it is nonverbal. For instance, when you "set the example," that communicates to your people that you would not ask them to perform anything that you would not be willing to do. What and how you communicate either builds or harms the relationship between you and your employees.

    All are different. What you do in one situation will not always work in another. You must use your judgment to decide the best course of action and the leadership style needed for each situation. For example, you may need to confront an employee for inappropriate behavior, but if the confrontation is too late or too early, too harsh or too weak, then the results may prove ineffective.

    Various forces will affect these factors. Examples of forces are your relationship with your seniors, the skill of your people, the informal leaders within your organization, and how your company is organized.

    If you are a leader who can be trusted, then those around you will grow to respect you. To be such a leader, there is a Leadership Framework to guide you:

    BE a professional. Examples: Be loyal to the organization, perform selfless service, take personal responsibility.
    BE a professional who possess good character traits. Examples: Honesty, competence, candor, commitment, integrity, courage, straightforwardness, imagination.

    KNOW the four factors of leadership - follower, leader, communication, situation.

    KNOW yourself. Examples: strengths and weakness of your character, knowledge, and skills.

    KNOW human nature. Examples: Human needs, emotions, and how people respond to stress.

    KNOW your job. Examples: be proficient and be able to train others in their tasks.

    KNOW your organization. Examples: where to go for help, its climate and culture, who the unofficial leaders are.

    DO provide direction. Examples: goal setting, problem solving, decision making, planning.

    DO implement. Examples: communicating, coordinating, supervising, evaluating.

    DO motivate. Examples: develop moral and esprit in the organization, train, coach, counsel.

    Every organization has a particular work environment, which dictates to a considerable degree how its leaders respond to problems and opportunities. This is brought about by its heritage of past leaders and its present leaders.

    Goals, Values, and Concepts
    Leaders exert influence on the environment via three types of actions:
    The goals and performance standards they establish.
    The values they establish for the organization.
    The business and people concepts they establish.
    Successful organizations have leaders who set high standards and goals across the entire spectrum, such as strategies, market leadership, plans, meetings and presentations, productivity, quality, and reliability.

    Values reflect the concern the organization has for its employees, customers, investors, vendors, and surrounding community. These values define the manner in how business will be conducted.

    Concepts define what products or services the organization will offer and the methods and processes for conducting business.

    These goals, values, and concepts make up the organization's "personality" or how the organization is observed by both outsiders and insiders. This personality defines the roles, relationships, rewards, and rites that take place.

    Roles ad Relationships
    Roles are the positions that are defined by a set of expectations about behavior of any job incumbent. Each role has a set of tasks and responsibilities that may or may not be spelled out. Roles have a powerful effect on behavior for several reasons, to include money being paid for the performance of the role, there is prestige attached to a role, and a sense of accomplishment or challenge.
    Relationships are determined by a role's tasks. While some tasks are performed alone, most are carried out in relationship with others. The tasks will determine who the role-holder is required to interact with, how often, and towards what end. Also, normally the greater the interaction, the greater the liking. This in turn leads to more frequent interaction. In human behavior, its hard to like someone whom we have no contact with, and we tend to seek out those we like. People tend to do what they are rewarded for, and friendship is a powerful reward. Many tasks and behaviors that are associated with a role are brought about by these relationships. That is, new task and behaviors are expected of the present role holder because a strong relationship was developed in the past, either by that role holder or a prior role holder.

    Culture and Climate
    There are two distinct forces that dictate how to act within an organization: culture and climate.
    Each organization has its own distinctive culture. It is a combination of the founders, past leadership, current leadership, crises, events, history, and size. This results in rites: the routines, rituals, and the "way we do things." These rites impact individual behavior on what it takes to be in good standing (the norm) and directs the appropriate behavior for each circumstance.

    The climate is the feel of the organization, the individual and shared perceptions and attitudes of the organization's members. While the culture is the deeply rooted nature of the organization that is a result of long-held formal and informal systems, rules, traditions, and customs; climate is a short-term phenomenon created by the current leadership. Climate represents the beliefs about the "feel of the organization" by its members. This individual perception of the "feel of the organization" comes from what the people believe about the activities that occur in the organization. These activities influence both individual and team motivation and satisfaction, such as:

    How well does the leader clarify the priorities and goals of the organization? What is expected of us?
    What is the system of recognition, rewards, and punishments in the organization?
    How competent are the leaders?
    Are leaders free to make decision?
    What will happen if I make a mistake?
    Organizational climate is directly related to the leadership and management style of the leader, based on the values, attributes, skills, and actions, as well as the priorities of the leader. Compare this to "ethical climate" -- the "feel of the organization" about the activities that have ethical content or those aspects of the work environment that constitute ethical behavior. The ethical climate is the feel about whether we do things right; or the feel of whether we behave the way we ought to behave. The behavior (character) of the leader is the most important factor that impacts the climate.
    On the other hand, culture is a long-term, complex phenomenon. Culture represents the shared expectations and self-image of the organization. The mature values that create "tradition" or the "way we do things here." Things are done differently in every organization. The collective vision and common folklore that define the institution are a reflection of culture. Individual leaders, cannot easily create or change culture because culture is a part of the organization. Culture influences the characteristics of the climate by its effect on the actions and thought processes of the leader. But, everything you do as a leader will effect the climate of the organization.

    For an activity, see Culture and Climate.

    For information on culture, see Long-Term Short-Term Orientation.

    Leadership Models
    Leadership models help us to understand what makes leaders act the way they do. The ideal is not to lock yourself in to a type of behavior discussed in the model, but to realize that every situation calls for a different approach or behavior to be taken. Two models will be discussed, the Four Framework Approach and the Managerial Grid.

    Four Framework Approach
    In the Four Framework Approach, Bolman and Deal (1991) suggest that leaders display leadership behaviors in one of four types of frameworks: Structural, Human Resource, Political, or Symbolic. The style can either be effective or ineffective, depending upon the chosen behavior in certain situations.
    Structural Framework
    In an effective leadership situation, the leader is a social architect whose leadership style is analysis and design. While in an ineffective leadership situation, the leader is a petty tyrant whose leadership style is details. Structural Leaders focus on structure, strategy, environment, implementation, experimentation, and adaptation.

    Human Resource Framework
    In an effective leadership situation, the leader is a catalyst and servant whose leadership style is support, advocate, and empowerment. while in an ineffective leadership situation, the leader is a pushover, whose leadership style is abdication and fraud. Human Resource Leaders believe in people and communicate that belief; they are visible and accessible; they empower, increase participation, support, share information, and move decision making down into the organization.

    Political Framework
    In an effective leadership situation, the leader is an advocate, whose leadership style is coalition and building. While in an ineffective leadership situation, the leader is a hustler, whose leadership style is manipulation. Political leaders clarify what they want and what they can get; they assess the distribution of power and interests; they build linkages to other stakeholders, use persuasion first, then use negotiation and coercion only if necessary.

    Symbolic Framework
    In an effective leadership situation, the leader is a prophet, whose leadership style is inspiration. While in an ineffective leadership situation, the leader is a fanatic or fool, whose leadership style is smoke and mirrors. Symbolic leaders view organizations as a stage or theater to play certain roles and give impressions; these leaders use symbols to capture attention; they try to frame experience by providing plausible interpretations of experiences; they discover and communicate a vision.

    This model suggests that leaders can be put into one of these four categories and there are times when one approach is appropriate and times when it would not be. Any one of these approaches alone would be inadequate, thus we should strive to be conscious of all four approaches, and not just rely on one or two. For example, during a major organization change, a structural leadership style may be more effective than a visionary leadership style; while during a period when strong growth is needed, the visionary approach may be better. We also need to understand ourselves as each of us tends to have a preferred approach. We need to be conscious of this at all times and be aware of the limitations of our favoring just one approach.

    For an activity, see Bolman and Deal's Four Framework Approach.

    Managerial Grid
    The Blake and Mouton Managerial Grid (1985) uses two axis:
    "Concern for people" is plotted using the vertical axis
    "Concern for task" is along the horizontal axis.
    They both have a range of o to 9. The notion that just two dimensions can describe a managerial behavior has the attraction of simplicity. These two dimensions can be drawn as a graph or grid:

    High 9 Country Club Team Leader



    P 6
    O 5
    L 4


    1 Impovished Authoritarian

    0 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
    Low High

    Most people fall somewhere near the middle of the two axis. But, by going to the extremes, that is, people who score on the far end of the scales, we come up with four types of leaders:
    Authoritarian (9 on task, 1 on people)
    Team Leader (9 on task, 9 on people)
    Country Club (1 on task, 9 on people)
    Impoverished (1 on task, 1 on people).
    Authoritarian Leader (high task, low relationship)
    People who get this rating are very much task oriented and are hard on their workers (autocratic). There is little or no allowance for cooperation or collaboration. Heavily task oriented people display these characteristics: they are very strong on schedules; they expect people to do what they are told without question or debate; when something goes wrong they tend to focus on who is to blame rather than concentrate on exactly what is wrong and how to prevent it; they are intolerant of what they see as dissent (it may just be someone's creativity), so it is difficult for their subordinates to contribute or develop.
    Team Leader (high task, high relationship)
    This type of person leads by positive example and endeavors to foster a team environment in which all team members can reach their highest potential, both as team members and as people. They encourage the team to reach team goals as effectively as possible, while also working tirelessly to strengthen the bonds among the various members. They normally form and lead some of the most productive teams.

    Country Club Leader (low task, high relationship)
    This person uses predominantly reward power to maintain discipline and to encourage the team to accomplish its goals. Conversely, they are almost incapable of employing the more punitive coercive and legitimate powers. This inability results from fear that using such powers could jeopardize relationships with the other team members.

    Impoverished Leader (low task, low relationship)
    A leader who uses a "delegate and disappear" management style. Since they are not committed to either task accomplishment or maintenance; they essentially allow their team to do whatever it wishes and prefer to detach themselves from the team process by allowing the team to suffer from a series of power struggles.

    The most desirable place for a leader to be along the two axis at most times would be a 9 on task and a 9 on people -- the Team Leader. However, do not entirely dismiss the other three. Certain situations might call for one of the other three to be used at times. For example, by playing the Impoverished Leader, you allow your team to gain self-reliance. Be an Authoritarian Leader to instill a sense of discipline in an unmotivated worker. By carefully studying the situation and the forces affecting it, you will know at what points along the axis you need to be in order to achieve the desired result.

    For an activity, see The Leadership Matrix.

    The Process of Great Leadership
    The road to great leadership (Kouzes & Posner, 1987) that is common to successful leaders:
    Challenge the process - First, find a process that you believe needs to be improved the most.
    Inspire a shared vision - Next, share you vision in words that can be understood by your followers.
    Enable others to act - Give them the tools and methods to solve the problem.
    Model the way - When the process gets tough, get your hands dirty. A boss tells others what to do...a leader shows that it can be done.
    Encourage the heart - Share the glory with your followers' heart, while keeping the pains within your own.

  • Hebert, bravo for the wonderful piece of writing.
    I would like to differ with you on;

    "Impoverished Leader (low task, low relationship)
    A leader who uses a "delegate and disappear" management style. Since they are not committed to either task accomplishment or maintenance; they essentially allow their team to do whatever it wishes and prefer to detach themselves from the team process by allowing the team to suffer from a series of power struggles. "

    I don't believe in leadership as they'll always fail in the above. Collective delegation is best as you can always go back at the drawing table and evaluate the failings.

  • IT (information technology) is a term that encompasses all forms of technology used to create, store, exchange, and use information in its various forms (business data, voice conversations, still images, motion pictures, multimedia presentations, and other forms, including those not yet conceived Adam, L. (1996).
    IT includes everything from radios to telephones, from fax machines to computers, and from electronic mail (email) to the World Wide Web (www). Throughout the world, ITs are demonstrating significant impacts by enabling development partners to share information and knowledge in much more effective and efficient means than ever before Johnston, C.B. (1998).

    IT refers to the lowest level of involvement in the use of computer technology using basic stand-alone machines for office/productivity/non-integrated job-specific functions such as computer-assisted design (CAD) or accountancy. The computer is a tool for performing tasks. It supports the lecturer’s role by facilitating materials production and class administration. Computers can greatly improve the quality of materials and thus enhance the traditional teaching approach, for example PowerPoint-type presentations with the use of data projectors to display content on the computer monitor on to an overhead projector screen Castells, M. (1996).

    IT includes all matters concerned with the furtherance of computer science and technology and with the design, development, installation, and implementation of information systems and applications Hanna, N. et. al., (1995).

    Information Technology (IT) plays a positive role in communication sector in Uganda in various ways although where there is good, the bad inevitably cannot be completely suppressed. The following discussion brings out the strong and weak points on the role IT plays in the communication sector in Uganda;
    In the first place Information technology plays a key role in helping organizations achieve profitable results and keep competitive forces in check. Never before has the need for significant computing power been so great like it is happening today in Uganda Abid, A (2003).
    Donor representatives and experts in Uganda have struggled with how modern information technology should be used to support innovation in agriculture extension and this is the main reason as to why Uganda national agricultural advisory services (NAADS) was introduced to assist farmers’ access relevant information for agricultural production. Since NAADS Mission is "To increase farmer access to information, knowledge and technology for profitable agricultural production" This has been achieved through the use of modern information technologies such as the Internet, Fm radios, television, satellites and so on Uganda Communications Commission, (2002).
    IT potential raises great expectations among the educationists, and agriculture extension service workers, who settled in the rural areas to train farmers as plan for modernization of agriculture (PMA) is doing through National agriculture and advisory services (NAADS). However ITs have not been used maximally as a way of acquiring new knowledge because of the inadequacy of local content and limited access to ITs which constitute very serious problems.
    With regard to time management, ITs can facilitate communication and reduce the time needed for business transactions in Uganda. In the main production areas, IT is very crucial because the absence of any information on prices and potential outlets notably, on the local markets, are often at the mercy of intermediaries who generally do not add any significant value to the production chain but aim at exploiting the producers. Hence IT according to many Ugandan business communities is seen to play a very vital role in communication sector Makau, B.M. (1990).
    In education, IT plays the role of improving teacher/student learning and teaching methods whereby the access to information helps them enhance their classes and facilitate preparations for school exams. ITs can boost research and assist in acquiring new knowledge.
    Furthermore, ITs make it possible for the people to have access to information that helps improve preventive health education especially as far as HIV/AIDS are concerned. In places affected by recurrent epidemics of malaria, and diarrhea, dysentery, Ebola and so on the use of IT warning system based on systematic data collection has been able to sharply reduce the scourge. Hence ITs’ role in the health sector has been of significant importance.
    As a facilitator of communication, IT contributes to bringing scattered members of the same family closer together hence the creation and maintenance of a virtual community. This important effect has been taking place in Uganda more especially with the introduction of the Internet, mobile phones, the satellite communication, FM radio networks and so forth. This is a clear manifestation of the positive role IT plays in the communication sector.
    In land-locked regions like Uganda, which are known for their high migration levels, there is a belief that ITs (email and telephone) can contribute to minimizing transport costs, facilitating communication, and improving social life. This aspect is very important in the specific case of poor communities with relatively low incomes and high communication needs. For instance of recent pay phones have reduced their charges to manageable rates for instance even with a hundred shillings (100) one can make a call on “simu4u” services.
    However the Ugandan women seem to be less able to express the effects from ITs. The majority feel that these “instruments are not made for them.” This situation poses a problem since women constitute the highest percentage of the population and should have been the main target group. Many reasons have been advanced for lack of use by the women for instance lack of access to IT facilities, poverty, denial by their husbands and so on. Hence this has hindered the main role IT plays in communication sector that is as tool for empowerment Delmore, J. (1982)
    More so, IT plays a big role in communication sector by encouraging the youth participate actively in cultural and sports activities. The access to sports programmes such as soccer, e-car racing, movies, video games and so forth has assisted them ton pass their free time meaningfully. But on the other side this has created cultural imperialism whereby the foreign games such as the European soccer has suppressed our local games which are more educative for instance “MWESO”game improves peoples’ skills in calculations and rational reasoning.
    Important to note also is the fact that entrepreneurs through IT gain more external contacts and thus increase the prospects of diversification of their economic partners. ITs also contribute to employment generation through the creation of new jobs for the introduction of intrnet services created jobs for the kiosk attendants and computer maintenance experts. Hence IT plays essential roles in creating jobs in the communication sector globally and Uganda in particular.
    IT is also an important instrument for government to inform people/citizens and involve them in the decision making- process, civic education, community service provision and so on. Hence the impact of IT on our thinking how to provide information and what information needs to be provided has been strongly influenced by the possibilities and the opportunities that have been created by the IT tools.

    Uganda's vision for IT development is for a “Uganda where national development, especially human development and good governance, are sustainably enhanced, promoted and accelerated by efficient application and use of IT, including timely access to information”. This point clearly shows how the government is committed and values the contribution of IT to the communication sector.
    The provision of mobile cellular, Internet and fixed line services throughout the country has played a big role in the communication sector. Three cellular operators are competing for business in Uganda, MTN, CelTel and ugatelecom (mango). MTN owns Uganda’s second national operator’s license and, based on its subscription numbers compared to those of its competitors, delivers superior service, reliability and network deployment. CelTel is Uganda’s first mobile cellular company, and as a result of the competition that has driven down user rates and fees, has been faced with a major public relations challenge since the emergence of MTN and ugandatelecom.

    Approximately 15 Internet service providers ISPs are operating in Uganda at the moment, although there appears to be only two real choices between Infocom and Africa Online. Uganda Online (UOL) bills itself as an Internet service solutions provider (ISSP), and has for years been a major Internet backstopping support organization for development projects throughout East Africa. Wireless Internet connections deliver high-speed transmissions within Kampala City, and these services are slowly beginning to spread to other areas of the country as companies serve to meet the demands of their private sector clients. This has been a very big role information technology has played in the communication sector in Uganda.
    However e-mail rates range from approximately US$20 per month, and full Internet accounts average approximately US$50 per month. A major drawback with Ugandan Internet connectivity at the present time is the fact that none of the ISPs operating in Uganda have any points of presence (POPs) outside of Kampala. For those living outside of the capital city, this poses a serious issue for Internet users, since it requires that one makes a long distance from their particular area to Kampala in order to obtain access.
    Lack of information technology in general makes it difficult for the would be potential users of the in communication sector very challenging. For example in some areas of Uganda where there is no electricity such as remote of Kisoro the access to radio, computer, telephone, television and internet services remain a dream.
    Broadening equitable access to IT requires a political commitment from the leaders, and Uganda in some way lacks the human and technical resources to exercise substantial leadership in this arena. Hence various efforts need to be put in place by different government bodies as well as political commitment in order to put IT at the forefront of the government’s strategies for this purpose.
    In Uganda still, the penetration of computers in the private and public sectors is fairly high. All Banks have some level of computerization for example the use of Automatic Teller Machines (ATM) positively influenced modern service delivery. It has also been noted that most of the large private sector organizations use IT to support some of their activities for example most of such organizations have developed websites on which most of their transactions are done like job advertisements, applications and feed back. A number of NGOs (in particular the international ones) and international agencies operating in Uganda are reasonably computerized hence the role of IT at play in the banking system.
    According to Uganda communications commission, 2002, IT has been given priority. It is believed that IT has the capacity to greatly enhance the long established traditions of popular entertainment as a means of communication. Theatre in particular, with its combination of drama, music and dance, has proved capable of effectively conveying messages to audiences in sympathy with its conventions. That the establishment of Information and Communication centres at the district and sub-county levels will contribute to the availability of platforms for local performances, as well as for the use of small scale audio-visual equipment and screening of films and video.

    Furthermore, states have taken advantage of the latest modern information technologies in their fight against global crime and terror networks. Although one must note that these criminal organisations are also facilitated by ITs, they have been arguably more beneficial to governments, which are "nevertheless relying on Internet tools as never before. Thus, as with many other processes of globalisation, ITs are facilitating and playing a big role to new degrees of freedom and power for individuals which may often be seen to be at the expense of states Castells, M. (1996).

    ITs also play the role of opening the door to new forms of blue-collar crime as well as providing a medium for vice rings and subversive activity such as "leaderless resistance" and cyber terrorism. The policing of the Internet asks new questions of governments, which will increasingly require supra-national levels of organization and co-operation. The question of Internet surveillance may need to be addressed as an appropriate way to tackle this social problem. Policies that facilitate international co-operation and exchange, and that help to avoid sectional interests and rivalries, should help this process of fighting international crime at a global level.
    The use of modern information technology such as the internet, mobile phones and satellites have positively played a role of influencing the process of bridging the gap between various business partners. For example these days business can be carried out just by a mere click of the button and you are in business with the whole world.
    The contemporary era of globalization has been influenced by a revolution in which Information Technology (IT) plays a role of altering the way people communicate, interact and conduct business. Friedman (2001) notes that today’s era of globalization is built around falling telecommunications costs of microchips, satellites, fiber optics and the Internet. These new information technologies are able to weave the world together even tighter. The Information Technology has influenced the way in which individuals relate to each other, and their relationship with states and other organizations.
    However, the extent of this change has not been uniform, as not all societies, socio-economic groups or countries have felt its impact to the same degree. Globalisation, in its current form, has played a role of enhancing capitalist driven ideology, which has both positive and negative influences on people. As such, the use of information technology has given rise to a number of controversial issues.
    In the contemporary world, globalization has shifted from industrialization to a focus on Information Technologies and in this respect Uganda has had its share in implementing the modern policies of communication. The key to a nation’s survival lies in its ability to arm its members with knowledge, skills and the intellectual capacity needed to meet the rapid change in this ‘information age’. Knowledge thus becomes a form of capital, which is then applied to production, so technological knowledge is now the key to a country’s success. As Castells 2000 suggests that, “the new economy is organised around global networks of capital management, and information technology, whose access to technological know-how is at the roots of productivity and competitiveness”.

    On the other hand, ITs hold great possibilities for helping developing nations and lessening the inequality that exists in this era of globalisation. The cost of technology is falling with the development of microchips, satellites, fibre-optics and the Internet, which means that they are becoming more affordable to a wider range of Ugandans. For example the introduction of various communication services such as MTN, CELTEL, UGANDATELECOM and so on has considerably positively influenced modern communication as such services have not only remained in town areas but have also been extended to many rural areas. The introduction of village phones which do not need the use of electricity to operate shows the level at which IT has played a positive role in communication sector.
    The Internet, or cyberspace as it is commonly referred to, has created a new ‘virtual reality’ as this has become accepted as being ‘real life’. Loader (1999) defines cyberspace as “A computer generated public domain which has no territorial boundaries or physical attributes and is in perpetual use. This kind of information technology use has played a big role in communication sector world wide and Uganda has greatly benefited from it.
    Nevertheless, these uses are merely an extension of the real world’, evidenced by the fact that they were indeed created “for military, educational, public and increasingly commercial use.
    The influence of social attitudes more often than not pose a challenge to the effective use of IT services in communication sectors and this comes about especially when the users in question have a negative attitude towards the use of IT. For example some people are used to certain ways of doing things and therefore changing their attitudes becomes a very challenging phenomenon. People like top-level managers are used to heavily rely on their secretaries to do all the work for them and yet with the information technology influence, people need to be IT literate in order to match with the Global World.
    Information technology is significantly impacting Ugandan society and their daily lives. For example the public schools have and will continue to reflect societal change. There is a strong link between effective use of information technology and the theories of learning. This link is so strong that it will cause a fundamental shift away from didactic techniques to a unifying constructivist framework. Hence the role IT plays in the communication sector speaks for itself.
    More to note is that information technology has always impacted education sector for example the printing press allowed textbooks to be developed, and the replacement of slates and chalk by pencil and paper permitted a permanent record of one's writing to be preserved. Today, a new wave of information technology is beginning to cause repercussions in schools that will forever change how students are taught. Education is being partially transformed by new information technologies in Uganda and the world at large. At one time students could learn a small, but fixed body of knowledge.
    However, today, the enormous amount of available information, coupled with the fact that the amount of knowledge in the world continues to double at an increasingly quick rate, requires a transformative approach to education. It is imperative that the student of today learns how to be an information manager, rather than an information regurgitator (Mann, 1994).
    IT also plays a role of bringing the global community together for the first time in history. Information technologies are a key element of political progress, economic growth, and social development. The commitment to the importance of the use of information technologies to promote peace, security and stability, and to enhance democracy, respect for human rights, open and transparent government and the rule of law. The international community universally recognizes that infrastructure development, human capacity building, and network security are critical to achieving our shared vision and this has been achieved to some extent by IT influence in the communication sector where Uganda is an active player.
    The Uganda government through Uganda communications commission is committed to working with other nations to help create enabling environments for the rapid growth of information technologies. The commission stresses the point that these technologies are creating liberating and empowered Information Societies. They are linking the country closer together and accelerating economic growth and prosperity. The challenge here is to ensure that all persons fully enjoy.
    Information technology itself may provide a positive impetus as Rader (2000) states, "developments in education and information technology are beginning to help academic librarians achieve new breakthroughs in integrating information technology skills into the curriculum". It is also noted that information technology is changing the role of librarians, "from the keeper of the books to that of network navigator," and is providing the opportunity for librarians to become more active participants and leaders in the educational process. Hence the practice of librarianship is changing where people are moving from the traditional inward-looking orientation towards books to an outward-looking emphasis on information technology handling. Currently in Uganda the emphasis on collecting, processing, compiling, and disseminating information in support of students and researchers both inside and outside the institutions is becoming the order of the day. For example in higher institutions of learning like Makerere University many computer laboratories are in place to serve the same purpose.
    The essential conditions for successful integration of Information technologies into library education and the competencies required to fully cope with the new information technology is very core. For instance the use of online catalogue in many Ugandan libraries has reduced the problem of congestion at the service centers since people no longer waste time explaining the kind of books they are borrowing.
    However, throughout the world and Uganda inclusive, the utility of IT applications in communication sector tends to advance much more slowly than the underlying technologies. The effective implementation and use of IT are the result of a complex process that requires not only adoption of an information technology but also changes in organizations and institutions. As part of this process, individuals and organizations actively adapt and sometimes resist the technologies. As a result, the effects of IT on society often take place more slowly than visionaries predict. Nevertheless, the effects driven by the continual change in underlying technologies are substantial over time.
    The IT and development communities have a unique opportunity as indicated by the recent report of the United Nations Millennium Project and the United Nations Secretary-General's report “In larger freedom: towards development, security and human rights for all” (A/59/2005) have both highlighted the importance of science, innovation and information technology in realizing the millennium development goals (MDGs) and related national development priorities. IT has an especially significant role to play here for it is only with the strategic, widespread, intensive and innovative use of IT in development polices and programmes that the ambitious agenda of the MDGs becomes that much more possible to achieve. It should be noted that Uganda is a signatory to the millennium development goals hence affected by them.
    However, this involves the need not only to unleash the potential of IT parse but also the need to ensure that an enabling environment and capacities that can facilitate its development at all levels of implementation.
    Adequate IT awareness should include decision makers and stakeholders, including regional organizations, on the need for investment in IT capacity building at all levels of formal and non-formal sectors. This includes training development workers to incorporate ITs in their activities, and an emphasis on training of rural women, youth, and deprived groups in taking advantage of ITs.
    In Uganda today, there is limited emphasis put on rural development and food security. Implementation of IT programmes therefore cold play a very vital role in addressing the foregoing problem. Beyond physical access, information technology needs to be timely, retrievable and easily applied by a broad range of users, accessible in their own languages and consistent with their values.
    Information providers, such as NAADS, FAO and other agricultural and rural development agencies, to further facilitate access to their information technology resources, but also to provide support at the local level for rural people to generate and maintain ownership of their own content and applications, including agricultural information management. Information technology needs of various users should be identified in order to develop user-specific, locally sensitive content and applications, while procedures should also be implemented to enable feedback and widen participation in the development of these information resources.
    Incomplete understanding of the use and impact of ITs for rural development and food security calls for piloting, monitoring, evaluating and documenting of successful and unsuccessful applications of ITs for rural development sector. From these applications, models should be developed for identifying strategic future investments and programmes.
    In such a global economy, information technology plays a more important role than labour and capital do. Microeconomic globalization is a phase at which companies are establishing a global mechanism of production and marketing by means of the computer and communication. Macroeconomic globalization is closely related with global diffusion of information.
    As the world economy is integrated, now is the time we have to think about the new role of each nation and region. Considering the key role of information technology in the world economy, we will have to find solutions in the information technology, information infrastructure, and information industry. From this viewpoint, it is important to analyze the effects of information technology on the economy in general, and find the directions we should move towards.

    Information technology has shifted the paradigm of the economy. In a macroeconomic sense, information technologies affect the patterns of production, investment and employment. In a microeconomic sense, information technology changes business activities. In other words, thanks to advanced information technology, knowledge-based workers, who create and utilize information, play a key role in economic activities.
    In addition to yields and value added, it becomes important how much information can be converted into useful knowledge. Knowledge itself, not a physical good, will be a valuable product. So, we can easily infer that knowledge-creating organizations like research institutes and universities, will find their increased roles as a place for economic activities.
    As the information technology evolves, the world is now in paradigm shift from the industrial age to the information age. As a result, there is a growing demand in the service fields that require expert knowledge and information. In Korea, the share of service industry in GDP is growing from 50 per cent in 1995 to 67 percent in 1998.
    Thanks to information technology, existing service industries such as banking and distribution are enhancing efficiency and expanding their business areas. New industries on the basis of information technology such as software industry and information processing service are rapidly growing. As information technology plays the role of changing the aspects of competition, investment is made more in the area of information and communications that promotes productivity and expedites decision-making process than in the facilities increasing the production capability.
    Information technology has great role it plays to influence business activities. Changes take place in every part of the business, development of goods and technology, procurement, production, sales, distribution, and post-sale services. In Uganda many people have found business interesting because of information technology at their disposal. For example people in Uganda no longer travel long distances to areas like Dubai, Japan, UK and the like on business ventures since information technology has eased this by linking these people with the outside world for business purposes.
    "Technological shift" information technology has played a role of integrating ITs in university teaching in general and in teacher education in particular? The establishment of links among several variables that determine or affect the relation between the individual and these "new" information technologies has enhanced education at all levels. For example Makerere University has a plan to integrate computer learning in all disciplines offered to its students.
    Information technology not only has direct effect on a nation's economy by developing information and communication industry but also indirect effect on other sectors. For example in Uganda the Ministry of Finance relies on information technology to competently plan for the nation and all budgetary estimates have been eased due this phenomenon known as IT.
    With IT, the role of Government is changing from solving market failure into solving system failure. The system means the relationship between players and its environments. Players include individual person, corporate, research institute, university, government and so on. Environments include banking system, labour market structure, level of education, law and regulations. It is necessary for the Government to create, diffuse and utilize the information technology to remove bottlenecks that sometimes occur in these systems.
    From the IT perspective, the Ministry of Information and Communication of Republic of Uganda, many changes have taken place for example there are weekly press briefing by the minister which plays the role of informing the public and the world about whatever happening needs to be known for the public good.
    It is of paramount importance to know what role IT can play in the development processes of Uganda. The far-reaching effects of IT are not only limited to industrial production in industrialized and newly developed countries only. All economic sectors including agriculture, mining, banking, commerce, health-care, education, publishing, environment-management, energy conservation and transportation are becoming fast, flexible and information intensive (Hanna, 1995). If properly used in the developing countries, IT can be the main factor in increasing productivity in public administration, communications infrastructure, industry and agriculture
    Another role IT plays in the communication sector is to encourage more women and girls to become involved with information technology, both as knowledgeable users and as professionals in the field. The use of IT creates awareness of gender issues and to offer a practical tool for IT advocates, especially women’s organisations and movements, to ensure that IT meets their needs and does not infringe on their rights. For example at Makerere University women and gender department has been providing subsidized computer courses to female students in order to reduce the disparity and knowledge gaps that are creations of gender disparities.
    IT integration in radio Series is aimed at creating greater awareness on the information society, serving as a tool for media practitioners, especially radio broadcasters to engage various groups in debating the role of ITs in the development process. The series examine peoples’ understanding of the role and impact of ITs in communication sector and raises questions on the issues of access and disparities in the Ugandan information society.
    In Uganda community organizations use ITs to facilitate communication processes and to mobilize their members through the establishment of reliable, real-time communication systems, combining email, in particular, with traditional community communication systems. These organizations also expect the use of ITs to improve management and to facilitate planning and organization of their activities. For community organizations, access to useful and relevant information for their members for instance economic, cultural, and sports activities constitute a major concern. This information is used to help members make better and more rapid decisions in their various activities.
    Generally, ITs can improve the capacities of grassroots organizations to communicate and make their voices heard through the roles they play in their communities.
    Information Technologies (ITs) give rise to many expectations among the communities in Uganda. The role that IT instruments can play in economic and social development is emerging. The effects or changes that individuals expect from ITs are quite varied. In general, individuals do apply ITs to their main areas of activity for their own development. As a rule, users (actual or potential) expect the use of ITs to make positive changes in their jobs, education, health, agriculture, and environment.
    In Uganda another role Information Technologies (ITs) play in communication sector is the facilitation of business development through improved access to information on product prices (inputs and outputs), on markets, and on various other resources. Therefore, in agriculture, Ugandan farmers expect ITs to facilitate access to high-yielding varieties at competitive prices, input suppliers, credit institutions and information on how to improve their farming practices to increase yield. Although the said services have been strongly emphasized by the current government, the implementation of the same remains in balance.
    Uganda government has played a big role in liberalizing the communication sector and this has assisted in easing the flow of information. However, the cost of connectivity is still prohibitive. IT products such as interactive radio and television, video conferencing, teletext, Internet based virtual communities, and web publishing is available to a small percent of the Ugandan population. Governments around the world are focusing on strategies to increase access to and improve the quality of education.
    MTN village-Phone extends telecommunications access to rural villages across Uganda. In partnership with Uganda's leading micro-finance institutions, MTN villagePhone creates opportunities for poor rural individuals to become “Village Phone Operators”. These Village Phone businesses can be established in areas where electricity is unavailable and in areas where the MTN network can only be accessed with a booster antenna. MTN villagePhone provides special airtime rates to the Village Phone Operators to enable them to provide affordable telecommunications services to people in their village. Upcountry, people are now able to make a call without traveling many kilometers to the nearest town.
    MTN VillagePhone is an initiative of MTN Uganda and Grameen Foundation USA (who implemented a similar model in Bangladesh). The Grameen Technology Center partnered with MTN Uganda to bring Village Phones to Uganda, but with changes to the Bangladeshi model to make it specifically suited for Uganda. The first Village Phone Operators started business in Uganda in March 2003, and MTN villagePhone was formally launched on November 17, 2003 Makau, B.M. (1990)
    Globally and Uganda in particular the information technology acquisition raises a number questions both politically and culturally.
    Politically IT dependence of the receiving nations on the supplying ones more especially the developed nations could become a political question. It is the responsibility of the government to select carefully the country from which acquisition could be made without any political problems in future.
    The second question relates to the possible transfer of political power from political elites to the information technical specialists. This problem is more prominent in computer-based information technologies because these technologies are directly related with retrieval and processing of data and information. Those at the management level are mainly from non-technical backgrounds, as a result of which there is always a tension between these two groups.
    The third question concerns the selection of countries to which certain technology could be transferred. Such question raised need to be answered first before certain information technologies are introduced in our communication sector.
    Culturaly IT, particularly the computer, is not culturally neutral it often reflects the nature of the country that developed or manufactured it. One of the most distinct problems of the developing countries Uganda inclusive in fostering IT is their cultural difference from Western societies where individualism and rationalism are accepted as the higher values of life. That may not be the case with the developing countries, particularly from the point of view of individualism. The new information technology must be accepted by the receiving society. Therefore the set of values introduced by and indispensable for the use of the new information technology must not be contradictory to the values accepted for the receiving society (Lind, 1991).
    As Mallling (2000) rightly pointed out in his paper ‘Information Systems and Human Activity in Nepal’ that Nepal has a hierarchical society and is built upon traditional criteria such as kinship, residence, age and sex, but has become merged with the top-down authority.
    Powerful top down authority operates in the line of strict task division. In a broad sense, juniors execute while seniors supervise and delegate. In the hierarchical structure, staff at the higher levels hardly work at all, or even avoid work altogether, as work is perceived as signifying low status (Bista, 1994). This situation has been a case in Ugandan context also where for example the professors in the higher institutions of learning like Makerere University have negative attitude towards computer use since it looks like the secretary’s job to do the typing. Even their own e-mails are accessed by their immediate juniors/secretaries, which might compromise with the level of secrecy such e-mails hold.
    The importance of social interaction in the workplace greatly exceeds the importance of solitary information technology interaction. Work planning, serving clients or supervising, mainly involves personal meetings, visits, phone conversations, and discussions. There is no tradition of using written language for internalcommunication (Malling, 2000). Hence, the influence of oral culture may render certain computer applications such as in-house electronic communication difficult to implement.
    Therefore, it is not surprising to see that the communication via IT and computers faces strong resistance in certain communication sectors. In general, information technology is seen as a source of power in Uganda where lower status employees offer various services such as information, to supervisors in return for their job protection (Bista, 1994). This attitude of people is also mentioned is by Malling.
    Information is frequently seen as a resource, as a commodity, and you only give away if you get something back. The safest way to secure full right over the information is naturally not to externalize it at all.
    In conclusion, IT use, if planned, developed and managed properly can bring about greater efficiency in organizational operations, a better working environment, an effective decision-making process, better product quality and better quality of life for people generally. It is therefore important for developing countries Uganda inclusive to put more effort into finding out where they might have gone wrong in applying this information technology. Where do the problems really lie and what can be done about them? The developing countries need to learn by themselves and within their own environment ways in which IT can be applied to serve their own needs.

    Information technologies are the product of developed countries, and to make that technology suitable for developing countries, there should be an effort to build a capacity to recognize the importance of implementing IT according to local development needs. It is not what technology, but what strategies can be adopted to lead an appropriate information system in a country. It is precisely at such moments that the research can make a valuable contribution to a particular nation by bringing to the fore the relevant issues to assist in such strategies. Each country is unique. Appropriate information technology at the level of the policy maker means that the information technology provides the means for or supports activities, which in national terms are seen as desirable.
    Finally IT’s roles in communication sector is not a matter of weighing its merits against its demerits, but it is almost common knowledge to deduce that it is worthwhile in any modern communication sector.

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    www.martyfriedman.com/ - 11k - 14 May 2005

  • Poverty

    “Poverty stinks, poverty dehumanizes”, Mahatma Gandhi


    The study set out to examine the meaning, definition and the ways to alleviate poverty. The study also examined programmes and the strategies that could be efficiently used to empower the poor so as to avoid the acerbating line between the poor and the rich in the world’s developing countries like of Africa, Asia and the Caribbean. The study is a result of date collected from Government Agencies, Ministries, NGO, Individuals, Civil Society Organizations, Library search and Internet.

    The study found out that actually poverty is a relative term understood differently by different scholars and individuals. It was also established that the causes of poverty are not necessarily the factors for poverty. This is because a cause can be seen as something that contributes to the origin of a problem like poverty, while a factor can be seen as something that contributes to its continuation after it already exists.

    Among the definitions of poverty that were seen tin this study were, the state of being poor; lack of the means of providing material needs or comforts, the condition of being extremely poor: beggary, destitution, impoverishment, indigence, need, neediness, pennilessness, penuriousness, penury, and privation, want, a state of having little or no money and few or no material possessions, as lack of the resources to feed, to cloth, and to shelter themselves adequately according to socially defined standards., as any of a wide range of circumstances associated with need, hardship and lack of resources.

    The major findings of the study indicate that the population of the poor for Uganda’s case live in the rural areas and that the most affected are the those in the northern part of Uganda because of the ravaging war that has torn the area for over 18 years. For Uganda’s case however, the policies for reduction of poverty and the programs to alleviate poverty have been designed to sustain economic growth. Among these are, the Uganda Participatory Poverty Assessment Process 2001/2002, which includes programmes like farmers schemes, P.M.A among others. The major recommendations for steps to alleviate poverty globally that were suggested were;

    Though inequality inevitably rises during socio-economic transition, sound policies should be made to control and manage changes in inequality; direct assistance to poor and vulnerable people greater livelihood security; support for very poor and marginalized individuals through appropriate safety net provision; promoting social and economic re-establishment and reintegration; protecting and strengthening social capital in order to produce desirable developmental outcomes and social inclusion; strengthening policy reforms by addressing the needs and interests of poor and vulnerable groups; promotion and protection of the human rights of women, children, ethnic minorities and vulnerable groups such as the elderly and people with disabilities; strengthening the productive capacity of the poor through education, and training. Population education must find its own priority in development plans so as to guarantee the future prospects of social welfare in the society.

    1.0 Introduction, definition, factors and causes of poverty.
    A "factor" and a "cause" are not quite the same thing. A "cause" can be seen as something that contributes to the origin of a problem like poverty, while a "factor" can be seen as something that contributes to its continuation after it already exists.

    Poverty on a world scale has many historical causes: colonialism, slavery, war and conquest. There is an important difference between those causes and what we call factors that maintain conditions of poverty. Peter Henriot (2001), says, “Poverty is a cause that blocks development by preventing people from working towards good human conditions, marginalising them in the process of empowerment and achievement and thus bringing about more inhumane conditions. Poverty is also sign that development has not occurred, if people are not enjoying the basic human conditions owed to them by reason of their innate dignity as daughters and sons of God, made in God's image”.

    It is well known that many nations of Europe, faced by devastating wars, such as World Wars I and II, were reduced to bare poverty, where people were reduced to living on handouts and charity, barely surviving. Within decades they had brought themselves up in terms of real domestic income, to become thriving and influential modern nations of prosperous people

    1.1 The Dictionary Definition of Poverty
    According to the Oxford Advanced learner’s dictionary (5th Edition 1995), poverty is the state of being poor or the state of being inferior. Thesaurus defines poverty as the condition of being extremely poor: beggary, destitution, impoverishment, indigence, need, neediness, pennilessness, penuriousness, penury, and privation, want.

    World Net defines poverty as state of having little or no money and few or no material possessions. American History defines poverty as lack of the resources to feed, to cloth, and to shelter themselves adequately according to socially defined standards. Wikipedia defines poverty, as any of a wide range of circumstances associated with need, hardship and lack of resources. For some, poverty is a subjective and comparative term; for others, it is moral and evaluative; and for others, scientifically established. The principal uses of the term include:
    · Descriptions of material need, including deprivation of essential goods and services, multiple deprivation, and patterns of deprivation over time.
    · Economic circumstances, describing a lack of wealth (usually understood as capital, money, material goods, or resources especially natural resources). The meaning of "sufficient" varies widely across the different political and economic areas of the world. In the European Union, poverty is also described in terms of "economic distance", or inequality.
    · Social relationships, including social exclusion, dependency, and the ability to live what is understood in a society as a "normal" life: for instance, to be capable of raising a healthy family, and especially educating children and participating in society. A person living in the condition of poverty is said to be poor.
    1.2 Definition of Poverty in the context of Uganda
    The background to poverty and the evolving definition of poverty given in the previous paragraphs are good evidence to show that Poverty is relative and is defined differently by different groups worldwide. Poverty is described as a dangerous phenomenon that is found among individuals, families, groups, organizations and governments around the globe. It is seen, felt, tasted, heard, and even touched. It is characterized by hunger and lack of food, escalating unemployment and poor wages for those who are employed, having limited or no productive assets such as farm tools and land. According to the findings of the Uganda Participatory Poverty Assessment Process 2003, that was carried out in 60 communities in 12 districts (Mubende, Wakiso, Rakai, Jinja, Burigi, Soroti, Moroto, Kitgum, Arua Bundibugyo, Ntungamo and Mansindi), poverty was perceived in these communities as:
    · The lack of basic needs and services. These may include; food, clothing, bedding, shelter, paraffin, basic health care, roads, markets, education, information and communication among others”. (UPPAP-2003: 11). Poverty is lack of the means to satisfy the basic material and social needs, as well as a feeling of powerlessness.

    Photo 1: By Aloysius Kiribaki: One of the households in Kumi district
    depicting poverty dimensions.
    · Powerlessness. i.e. Lack of ability to express one’s views both at home and to the government. It is lack of participation, voicelessness, unmet aspirations, gender discrimination and poor governance. It is a state of helplessness and hopelessness.
    · Social exclusion where a particular individual or a group of people are excluded from accessing certain services or benefits or they are never heard in family, group, community or government meetings.
    · Poverty is death: To communities in Kotido, poverty is equated to death. Local people in Kotido described poverty as “a situation whereby a person does not have anything or lacks everything needed in life”. It was also seen as “a state of hopelessness whereby a person has barely and absolutely nothing to survive on”, UPPAP- Kotido District, PPA Report, Jan 2000.

    ‘Poverty is an unacceptable human condition that must be eliminated through public policy and action’. This, and other similar statements are always made by governments and other development agencies the world over in response to the ever-increasing levels of poverty in society today. Mahatma Gandhi had no other option of describing poverty other than saying, “Poverty stinks; poverty dehumanizes” J.Maurus (1969).

    The concept of poverty has expanded considerably over the 2nd half of the 20th century and into the new millennium. From an early focus on income alone, today’s broader definitions include income poverty as just one of a range of aspects of deprivation. Poverty is recognized to be a dynamic, complex phenomenon involving concepts such as vulnerability and powerlessness as explained in the following section.

    1.2.1 Income Poverty
    According to global trends, the definition of poverty has been evolving over time. In the 1950s and 1960s, ‘development’ was synonymous with increased national production. This was the era of modernization, and poverty was simply the result of low gross domestic product (GDP). It was assumed that the economic rewards of modernization would eventually trickle down to everyone. During this period very little attention was paid to income distribution or poverty per se.

    In the 1970s a concern arose that the expected trickle-down was not actually taking place. The decade was thus marked by efforts to promote growth with equity and targeted interventions focused on the poor. Integrated rural development and gender specific programs emerged for the first time. The basic needs approach, introduced by the International Labor Organization (ILO), recognized that there are non-monetary dimensions that influence whether people are poor. The five basic needs were defined as food, health, water and sanitation, education, and shelter. The late 1970s also saw the development of the Physical Quality of Life Index, based on the basic literacy rate, infant mortality, and life expectancy at age1. This and other indices evolved out of dissatisfaction with GDP or per capita as a useful indicator of welfare, and represented a widening of the definition of poverty.

    1.2.2 Poverty as a deprivation of most essential capabilities of life
    By the 1980s, there was a shift to promoting the capabilities approach, where poverty is a deprivation of the basic capabilities of individuals, and income is only one determinant of an individual’s capability and functioning. The capability approach shifted the focus from means (such as having income to buy food) to ends (being well-nourished), recognizing that there are a number of factors at work that determine the ability to turn income into well being. This became the foundation of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) concept of human development. Human development was defined as the process of expanding people’s choices, and human poverty was the deprivation of the most essential capabilities of life: to lead a long and healthy life, to be knowledgeable, to have adequate economic provisioning, and to participate fully in one’s community. Participation, human well-being and freedom became central features of the notion of development.

    1.2.3 Vulnerability and lack of access to assets
    In the 1990s, poverty reduction moved to the top of the development agenda. The definition expanded even further as more participatory research emphasized its multidimensional nature. Vulnerability became a central dimension, based on the idea that the poor have fewer assets than the non-poor to cushion themselves against shocks (such as financial crises, conflicts, and natural disasters). Building on this concept, the UK Department of International Development (DFID) pioneered the Sustainable Livelihoods (SL) framework, based on five types of capital that help reduce vulnerability to keep people out of poverty: human, financial, natural, social, and physical capital.

    1.2.4 Poverty and economic growth
    In the new millennium, attentions have turned back to the question of economic growth, but with a very different and more poverty-conscious perspective than that in the 1950s. As Timmer (2004) has put it: pro-poor growth is the “the new mantra of the development community”. There are currently debates on how exactly to define pro-poor growth. Some define it strictly: growth is pro-poor when the poor benefit disproportionately from it (in other words, when the poor gain more than the non-poor). Others are more general: growth is pro-poor simple when it reduced poverty (Krakowski, Ed 2004). In both formulations, the key is how well the poor connect to the growth process, and why. Overall growth that does not see a rise in the incomes of the poor is not pro-poor growth. In 2004 major research efforts were underway in a number of donor organizations (including the World Bank, the German Agency for Technical Cooperation or GTZ, and the United States Agency for International Development or USAID) to study how to make the concept operational (USAID, 2004).

    1.2.5 Poverty as a Multi-dimensional Phenomenon: Lack of Income; Lack of Access to Assets; Vulnerability & Powerlessness.
    Poverty has expanded a great deal over the past decades. Where focus was previously on income poverty alone, over the course of the 20th century it has expanded to include other dimensions: income + assets + vulnerability + powerlessness (ADB poverty eradication strategy, 2004). The progressive widening of the definition of poverty has been represented graphically with a triangle, where income is the sole dimension at the top, gradually expanding to include other dimensions of well-being as one moves down toward the broad base of the triangle. The wider the definition of poverty, the more meaningful and richer the information, but the more difficult to make it operational.

    The wider definition of poverty explains why Poverty is described as relative. For example, communities in Uganda perceive poverty as ‘lack of basic needs and services such as food, clothing, bedding, shelter, basic health care and education. Poverty is further perceived as powerlessness meaning lack of ability to express one’s view both at home in the case of women, and to government. It is a lack of voice and failure to be heard. New poverty dimensions in Uganda also include ‘social exclusion, governance, community status or affluence and ignorance and lack of knowledge and awareness.

    “Poverty is lack of a man (husband)”. Women Dicpe village. “ ‘Even if men mistreat women, they help women in acquiring land and protect them during dangers’ argued a woman participant Dicpe village”, UPPAP- Kotido District, PPA Report, Jan 2000.

    While the women of Kotido remarked that poverty is lack of a man, people in Bundibugyo observed ‘If you are ignorant and lacking information about certain things, you can never develop yourself’. Poverty has also been extended to include ‘child poverty’ which is characterized by discrimination, child labor exploitation and voiceless ness. Poverty is also expressed by inequities in distribution of resources, levels of development and geographical locations. For example, urban people view poverty differently from people in rural areas. In Northern Uganda, poverty is defined as insecurity and internal displacement (The New Vision, Wednesday, October 27th, 1999).

    Lack of clean and safe water sources are
    another aspect of poverty; Photo by Okalebo.

    The Asian Development Bank (ADB) definition of poverty is ‘a deprivation of essential assets and opportunities to which every human is entitled. Everyone should have access to basic education and primary health services. Poor households have the right to sustain themselves by their labor and be reasonably rewarded, as well as have some protection from external shocks. Beyond income and basic services, individuals and societies are also poor – and tend to remain so – if they are not empowered to participate in making the decisions that shape their lives. (ADB.1999)

    Figure 1: The pyramid of Poverty
    Easier to Richer concept,
    make operational, more inclusive
    more comparable
    Income + assets
    Income + assets + vulnerability
    Income + assets + vulnerability + powerlessness

    1.3 Absolute or Relative poverty; Objective or Subjective poverty; Chronic or Transient poverty
    The definitions of poverty are also influenced by the different standards used for measuring poverty. When we talk about poverty, are we looking at absolute or relative poverty; objective or subjective poverty; chronic or transient poverty? The concepts are used to measure poverty, but can also be helpful in understanding the relative and multidimensional nature of poverty.

    1.3.1 Absolute or Relative poverty
    Absolute poverty means not being able to satisfy minimum requirements for physical human survival. Absolute poverty thresholds are developed using the cost of a basket of goods that satisfies essential food and non-food needs: food, clothing, and shelter. The Millennium Development Goals (MDG) for economic well-being is to reduce by half the number of people living in absolute poverty, measured using a poverty line of one US dollar per person per day (PPP).

    Relative poverty is defined in relation to average income levels or societal norms. Relative poverty concept goes beyond physical survival and is related to the concept of social exclusion. Relative deprivation is a lack of access to a level of goods and services that are required for meaningful participation in society. A relative poverty line might be set as a proportion of the national average income, for example.

    1.3.2 Objective or Subjective poverty
    The subjective approach to understanding holds that poverty must be defined by those experiencing it themselves, and that means defined from above are disempowering and do not capture the true nature of deprivation. The subjective approach grew out of participatory rural appraisal methodologies and participatory poverty assessments, both of which sought to improve policymaking by incorporating local understanding and perceptions of poverty. The Uganda Participatory Poverty Assessment Process (PPA1 & 2) conducted in 1998/9 and 2001/02 is an example of a subjective approach. Under PPA, which brings together the perspectives of poor people in 12 districts of Uganda on the nature of poverty in the different localities and contexts, poverty is defined as the “lack of basic needs and services such as food, clothing, beddings, shelter, paraffin, basic health care, roads, markets, education, information and communication”. In addition, the lack of opportunities for survival and employment, and having limited or no productive assets such as farm tools and land emerged strongly in the definitions of poverty, during the PPA process. The poorer people within the communities also drew the dimensions of powerlessness, social exclusion and ignorance and lack of knowledge, into the key definitions of poverty.

    On the other hand, objective poverty, measures are defined in a more “scientific” manner and focus on quantifiable dimensions (such as food baskets that satisfy nutritional requirements). Absolute poverty lines fall under the objective tradition. In practice, however, all poverty measurement is going to require some more or less arbitrary choices, no matter how objective the tradition.

    1.3.3 Chronic or Transient poverty
    Appropriate poverty reduction policies must consider whether poverty is chronic or transient. Is poverty a trap door or a revolving door? The significant feature of chronic poverty is its extended duration. The chronic poor always live in poverty and have very few assets or opportunities to escape it.

    Transient poverty is temporary or cyclical. Transient poverty also referred to as downward mobility or upward mobility. The transient poor can be moved out of poverty once the exogenous shock has passed. Transient poverty might be related to seasonality, or to losing a job. Social protection programmes like savings schemes become key to minimizing and mitigating transient poverty. The concepts of chronic and transient poverty recognize that poverty is dynamic, and that people may move in and out of it over time. The table below shows the reasons given by 19 communities in Uganda for transient poverty in Uganda.

    Table 1: Factors responsible for moving people in poverty and out poverty cited by 19 communities in Uganda during the PPA2 process.

    Priority factors responsible for moving people into poverty Priority factors responsible for moving people out of poverty
    AlcoholismPolygamyInsecurity & displacementLarge families/many dependantsIllnessTheft/RobberyLandlessnessHigh/unfair taxesFailure to pay loansOld agePayment of dowryLoss of property – land, livestockLack of savings/saving cultureDead of breadwinnerDrought and faminePayment of school fees for secondary/tertiary educationUnemployment/loss of job Working hardGainful employment/multiple income sourcesAccess to land, propertyEducation/LiteracyHaving start-up capitalPetty trade (especially women)Surplus production and good pricesHaving savingsAccess to affordable loansRearing small animals for saleDowry
    Source: Uganda Participatory Poverty Assessment Process (PPA, 2002).

    1.3.4 Assets and Access Poverty
    Poverty is more than a lack of income. It is a deprivation of and lack of access to essential assets. The assets in the context of poverty fall into the categories of human capital, physical capital, natural capital, financial capital, and social capital.

    · Human Capital: Human capital is defined as the skill, knowledge, and good health that together allow people to work and earn a living. The two most important human capital investments are in education and health. Human capital expands the opportunities and choices people have, and this in turn can impact economic growth. The WHO Commission on Macroeconomics and Health confirms the link between human capital and macroeconomics performance. Empirical evidence bears out that countries with the weakest conditions of health and education have a much more difficult time achieving sustained growth than do countries with better conditions of health and education (WHO, 2001). Health status affects a person’s ability to go to school, to obtain work and generate income, and to generally participate in society. Poor health leads to poverty and poverty leads to poor health.

    · Physical Capital: Physical capital comprises the basic infrastructure and services that help to keep people out of poverty. Essential infrastructure and services include access to roads and affordable transportation, adequate shelter/housing, potable (fit for drinking) water supply and sanitation, affordable energy, and communications. The lack of these types of infrastructure is a core dimension of poverty. Without adequate access to services such as water and energy, health can deteriorate and people are forced to spend more time in nonproductive activities like collecting water and fuel wood. Without access to affordable transportation, the poor might opt to keep their children at home rather than send them to school. This in turn prevents human capital formation and perpetuates poverty.

    · Financial Capital: Financial capital denotes the financial resources that people are able to access. DFID defines two main sources of financial capital: available stocks (such as savings, or credit) and regular in flows (the most common types, aside from wage earnings, are pensions and other transfers from the state, and remittances). Financial capital is thought to be the most versatile of the five categories of assets, since it can be turned into other types of capital, but it is also the asset that tends to be least available to the poor (DFID, 1999). Increased access to financial capital for the poor can be supported in a number of ways as illustrated in the table below:

    Table 2: Building Financial Capital
    Access to financial capital can be supported through three indirect means:

    · Organizational: Increasing the productivity of existing savings and financial flows by helping to develop effective financial services for the poor.

    · Institutional: Increasing access to financial services (including overcoming barriers associated with lack of collateral among the poor)

    · Regulatory: Reforming the environment in which financial services operate and helping governments provide better safety nets for the poor (including pensions)
    Source: DFID 1999

    · Natural Capital: Natural capital comprises a variety of resources, from intangible public goods such as the atmosphere and biodiversity to divisible assets used directly for production. As explained by DFID (1999) the relationship between natural capital and vulnerability to poverty is particularly pronounced. Many of the shocks that devastate the livelihoods of the poor are processes that destroy natural capital, such as fires that destroy forests, or floods that destroy agricultural land. Natural capital is particularly significant to those ho derive all or even part of their livelihoods from resource-based activities, like farming, fishing, and so on, which in Uganda is a large proportion of the population. The environment and access to land are key aspects of natural capital related to poverty.

    Environmental conditions have major effects on the health, opportunities, and vulnerability of poor people and improving environmental conditions can help to reduce poverty. The scope on environmental concerns is broad, and includes water and air pollution, land degradation, deforestation, loss of ecosystems and fisheries. Environmental degradation imposes severe costs on the poor, contributing to further impoverishment. Lack of alternative choices, lead poor people into undertaking actions that are environmentally deleterious (harmful). Poor people resort to natural resource exploitation for the lack of alternative income generating activities.

    Limited access to Land or land shortage ranks second among the most frequently cited cause of poverty in Uganda. Evidence shows that households particularly in the middle and poorest categories are not accumulating land. Instead, they have seen their land ownership decreasing significantly as a result of problems linked to large families, insurgency, commercial farming, evictions, migrations and gender inequalities. Large families also featured as an important cause of poverty in themselves, as well as being a factor behind land shortages. (UPPAP Report, 2003).

    Photo 3: The village houses are mud huts as seen in this photograph

    · Social Capital: Social capital comprises the social resources upon which people are able to draw. These social resources are developed through networks and connectedness, membership of groups and organizations, and relationships of trust, reciprocity, and exchanges that facilitate cooperation and can provide information safety nets among the poor (DFID, 1999). Social capital is based on relationships. As Portes (1998) defines it: social capital stands for the ability of actors to secure benefits by virtue of membership in social networks or other social structures. Portes clarifies the distinction between social and other forms of capital. “Whereas economic capital is in the people’s bank accounts, and human capital is inside their heads, social capital inheres in the structure of their relationships. To possess social capital, a person must be related to others, and it is these others, not himself, who are the actual source of his or her advantage. Participation is a key ingredient of social capital.
    Participation – involving people in decision-making issues that directly affect them – builds social capital, and social capital stocks directly improve people’s welfare. Encouraging participation in community-driven development (CDD) is away to build social capital. CDD gives control of decisions and resources to community groups and treats poor people as assets and partners in the development process, building on their institutions and resources. The World Bank has a major CDD programme www.worldbank.org/cdd, and support includes:
    (i) Strengthening and financing inclusive community groups,
    (ii) Facilitating community access to information, and
    (iii) Promoting and enabling environment through policy and institutional reform.

    The link to social capital lies in empowering poor women and men by devolving control and decision making to them.



    2.1 Malnutrition
    Malnutrition is caused by lack of adequate food and liquids that have to be taken by a person and is caused mainly by lack of ability to buy or to acquire the necessary food items. Poor people do not have enough to eat and sometimes have totally nothing to eat. The lack of food and fluids that are adequate and balanced cause malnutrition and this is a common feature among the poor communities. Children have Kwashiorkor; they are thin and have unproportional body parts – big heads, thin legs.

    2.2 Disease
    People who are poor cannot afford health care. They cannot afford to buy medicine or seek professional medical services. This coupled with poor feeding results into prolonged sickness. In poor communities diseases break out so often and kill the people especially the young and old. Diseases like cholera, dysentery, and TB are common among the poor communities. These diseases are compounded and propagated by poor sanitation facilities. Poor communities do not have toilets or latrines and disposal of human waste is in the open where flies and other vectors can land and transmit diseases easily and devastatingly.

    2.3 General sense of hopelessness (Apathy)
    People who have no access to basic needs exhibit a sense of hopelessness that is they have no plan for today or tomorrow or for the years to come. They practically do nothing or plan to do nothing about their situation. This is illustrated in villages where someone can not even fill holes with mad that develop in their huts. There is no cost to such an endeavor and can stop snakes mosquitoes, etc entering the house which in turn would stop diseases. Poor people do not bathe; do not remove jiggers from their feet or lice from their hair or clothes and these basic and effortless activities which can have a higher impact on their health and welfare are not done.

    2.4 Insecurity
    Insecurity is a typical factor of poverty. The poor person has nothing to loose and poor people provide a fertile ground for recruitment into crime for example the Palestinians suicide bombers are so poor and can hardly afford anything. So blowing themselves up so that their families can have something to eat is a common occurrence.

    Poor people who are able bodied resort to acts of lawlessness like stealing and high handed robberies in the neighbourhoods, irrational killings and acts of general violence like rape, drugs and hooliganism. All these increase insecurity among the communities of the poor.

    2.5 The mortality and maternity rates
    Where poverty is high these figures are also very high. This is because the facilities are either not there or are so inadequate to cater for the mothers and newborn babies. When mothers are delivering they face a lot of medical challenges and they may need surgery, blood transfusion and oxygen to mention but a few. Among the poor community all these are not available and thus the high death of mothers while delivering.

    For the same reason the new born babies most times require urgent medical attention especially with breathing cases and pre matures. Poor communities usually lack these facilities and experience high death rates among the newborn babies.

    2.6 Low life expectancy
    In places with high poverty levels life expectancy is as low as forty years. This is because there are so many causes of death in such deprived communities for example sanitation leading to disease, insecurity leading to murder, robberies and theft, starvation, among others.

    This can be illustrated by the third world poor countries where the average life expectance is between 45-50 years while in the rich nations life expectancies average between 75- 80 years.

    2.7 Literacy rate
    Poor communities have low literacy rates. Because people are struggling to find the basic human wants. Education is seen as a luxury and most poor people cannot read or write. This causes a cycle to perpetuate poverty in these communities. Because they lack education they lack even the basic knowledge of hygiene and personal health and this means diseases and so on.

    2.8 High population growth or high birth rates
    Because poor people cannot afford any form of entertainment the recreation activity is mainly sex and this leads to high population growth. Sex offers the only entertainment and source of recreation for the poor. This is because the poor households can not afford fuel to keep awake for a while, they do not own radios and the few who may can not afford batteries on a regular basis– so they can not listen to radios, the outside is cold usually at night and they have to get in and be close to generate warmth.

    2.9 Poverty as a Social Problem
    We have all felt a shortage of cash at times. That is an individual experience. It is not the same as the social problem of poverty. While money is a measure of wealth, lack of cash can be a measure of lack of wealth, but it is not the social problem of poverty. Furthermore, it is a "poverty of spirit," that allows members of that community to believe in and share despair, hopelessness, apathy, and timidity. Poverty, especially the factors that contribute to it, is a social problem, and its solution is social. The simple transfer of funds, even if it is to the victims of poverty, will not eradicate or reduce poverty. It will merely alleviate the symptoms of poverty in the short run. It is not a durable solution.

    Poverty as a social problem is a deeply embedded wound that permeates every dimension of culture and society. It includes sustained low levels of income for members of a community. It includes a lack of access to services like education, markets, health care, lack of decision making ability, and lack of communal facilities like water, sanitation, roads, transportation, and communications

    Factors of poverty (the big five)
    Poverty as a social problem calls for a social solution. That solution is the clear, conscious and deliberate removal of The Big Five Factors of poverty that contribute to the social problem of poverty.

    The factors of poverty (as a social problem) this stance is emphasized by Phil Barte (2004) citing factors like ignorance, disease, apathy, dishonesty and dependency. No moral judgment is intended. They are not good or bad, they just are. If it is the decision of a group of people, as in a society or in a community, to reduce and remove poverty, they will have to, without value judgment, observe and identify these factors, and take action to remove them as the way to eradicate poverty.

    The difference is in terms of what we, today, can do about them. We cannot go back into history and change the past. Poverty exists. Poverty was caused. What we potentially can do something about are the factors that perpetuate poverty

    We know also that many nations have remained among the least developed of the planet, even though billions of dollars of so-called "aid" money was spent on them. Why? Because the factors of poverty were not attacked, only the symptoms. At the macro or national level, a low GDP (gross domestic product) is not the poverty itself; it is the symptom of poverty, as a social problem

    The big five, in turn, contribute to secondary factors such as lack of markets, poor infrastructure, poor leadership, bad governance, under-employment, lack of skills, absenteeism, lack of capital, and others. Each of these are social problems, each of them are caused by one or more of the big five, and each of them contribute to the perpetuation of poverty, and their eradication is necessary for the removal of poverty


    a) Ignorance
    Ignorance means having a lack of information, or lack of knowledge. It is different from stupidity which is lack of intelligence, and different from foolishness which is lack of wisdom. The three are often mixed up and assumed to be the same by some people.

    It is important to determine what information is missing. Many planners and good minded persons who want to help a community become stronger, think that the solution is education. But education means many things. Some information is not important to the situation. It will not help a farmer to know that Romeo and Juliet both died in Shakespeare's play, but it would be more useful to know which kind of seed would survive in the local soil, and which would not.

    "Knowledge is power," goes the old saying. Unfortunately, some people, knowing this, try to keep knowledge to themselves (as a strategy of obtaining an unfair advantage), and hinder others from obtaining knowledge. Do not expect that if you train someone in a particular skill, or provide some information, that the information or skill will naturally trickle or leak into the rest of a community.
    The training in this series of community empowerment documents includes (among other things) the transfer of information. Unlike a general education, which has its own history of causes for the selection of what is included, the information included here is aimed at strengthening capacity, not for general enlightenment.

    b) Disease
    When a community has a high disease rate, absenteeism is high, productivity is low, and less wealth is created. Apart from the misery, discomfort and death that result from disease, it is also a major factor in poverty in a community. Being well (well-being) not only helps the individuals who are healthy, it contributes to the eradication of poverty in the community. Thus, the main concern is the factors, not causes. It does not matter if tuberculosis was introduced by foreigners who first came to trade, or if it were autochthonic. It does not matter if HIV that carries AIDS was a CIA plot to develop a biological warfare weapon, or if it came from green monkeys in the soup. Those are possible causes. Knowing the causes will not remove disease. Knowing the factors can lead to better hygiene and preventive behavior for their ultimate eradication.

    Here, as elsewhere, prevention is better than cure. It is one of the basic tenets of PHC (primary health care). The economy is much healthier if the population is always healthy; more so than if people get sick and have to be treated. Health contributes to the eradication of poverty more in terms of access to safe and clean drinking water, separation of sanitation from the water supply, knowledge of hygiene and disease prevention -- much more than clinics, doctors and drugs, which are costly curative solutions rather than prevention against disease.

    Many people see access to health care as a question of human rights, the reduction of pain and misery and the quality of life of the people. These are all valid reasons to contribute to a healthy population. What is argued here, further than those reasons, is that a healthy population contributes to the eradication of poverty, and it is also argued that poverty is not only measured by high rates of morbidity and mortality, but also that disease contributes to other forms and aspects of poverty.

    c) Apathy
    Apathy is when people do not care, or when they feel so powerless that they do not try to change things, to right a wrong, to fix a mistake, or to improve conditions. Sometimes apathy is justified by religious precepts, "Accept what exists because God has decided your fate." That fatalism may be misused as an excuse . It is OK to believe God decides our fate, if we accept that God may decide that we should be motivated to improve ourselves. "Pray to God, but also row to shore," a Russian proverb, demonstrates that we are in God's hands, but we also have a responsibility to help ourselves.

    Sometimes, some people feel so unable to achieve something, they are jealous of their family relatives or fellow members of their community who attempt to do so. Then they seek to bring the attempting achiever down to their own level of poverty. Apathy breeds apathy. We were created with many abilities: to choose, to cooperate, to organize in improving the quality of our lives; we should not let God or Allah be used as an excuse to do nothing. That is as bad as a curse upon God. We must praise God and use our God-given talents.

    In the fight against poverty, the mobilizer uses encouragement and praise, so that people (1) will want to and (2) learn how to –– take charge of their own lives.

    d) Dishonesty
    When resources that are intended to be used for community services or facilities, are diverted into the private pockets of someone in a position of power, there is more than morality at stake here. In this training series, we are not making a value judgment that it is good or bad. We are pointing out, however, that it is a major cause of poverty. The amount stolen from the public, that is received and enjoyed by the individual, is far less than the decrease in wealth that was intended for the public.

    It is ironic that we get very upset when a petty thief steals ten dollars' worth of something in the market, yet an official may steal a thousand dollars from the public purse, which does four thousand dollars worth of damage to the society as a whole, yet we do not punish the second thief. We respect the second thief for her or his apparent wealth, and praise that person for helping all her or his relatives and neighbors. In contrast, we need the police to protect the first thief from being beaten by people on the street.

    The amount of money that is extorted or embezzled is not the amount of lowering of wealth to the community. Economists tell of the "multiplier effect." Where new wealth is invested, the positive effect on the economy is more than the amount created. When investment money is taken out of circulation, the amount of wealth by which the community is deprived is greater than the amount gained by the embezzler. When a Government official takes a 100 dollar bribe, social investment is decreased by as much as a 400 dollar decrease in the wealth of the society.

    The second thief is a major cause of poverty, while the first thief may very well be a victim of poverty that is caused by the second. Our attitude, as described in the paragraph to the left, is more than ironic; it is a factor that perpetuates poverty. If we reward the one who causes the major damage, and punish only the ones who are really victims, then our misplaced attitudes also contribute to poverty. When embezzled money is then taken out of the country and put in a foreign banks like Swiss bank, then it does not contribute anything to the national economy; it only helps the country of the offshore or foreign bank.

    e) Dependency
    Dependency results from being on the receiving end of charity. In the short run, as after a disaster, that charity may be essential for survival. In the long run, that charity can contribute to the possible demise of the recipient, and certainly to ongoing poverty.

    Dependency is an attitude, a belief, that one is so poor, so helpless, that one can not help one's self, that a group cannot help itself, and that it must depend on assistance from outside. The attitude, and shared belief is the biggest self-justifying factor in perpetuating the condition where the self or group must depend on outside help.

    The community empowerment methodology is an alternative to giving charity (which weakens), but provides assistance, capital and training aimed at low-income communities identifying their own resources and taking control of their own development -- becoming empowered. All too often, when a project is aimed at promoting self-reliance, the recipients, until their awareness is raised, expect, assume and hope that the project is coming just to provide resources for installing a facility or service in the community. Among the five major factors of poverty, the dependency syndrome is the one closest to the concerns of the community mobilizer.

    The above five factors are mutually interdependent. For example, disease contributes to ignorance and apathy, whereas dishonesty contributes to disease and dependency and the cycle continues.



    There is no agreed conventional approach to alleviation of poverty in any given community. However, there are some key issues that can be considered when tackling poverty for a positive response. It is also important first to understand some of the common terms that are used in fighting poverty. These include Poverty alleviation, Poverty reduction and Poverty eradication. Peter Henriot (2001), distinguishes the terms as:

    · Poverty alleviation - this is the work of lessening the suffering of the poor, meeting their immediate pressing needs. Welfare, handouts, social security, safety nets, etc. Deal with the widows and the orphans, the elderly and the handicapped. This is, basically, the assistance through charity.
    · Poverty reduction - this is the task of lowering the numbers of those living below the poverty line, eliminating them from the rolls of the deprived. Provide them with jobs, with health and education services, with opportunities to rise above the poverty line. This is, basically, the commitment of development.
    · Poverty eradication - this is the challenge of restructuring society so that the impoverished disappear, the immense absolute numbers decrease to minimal exceptional cases. This calls for planning, for priorities, for shifts in power, for restructuring society, for "revolution." This is, basically, the transformation through justice.

    3.1.1 Situational analysis/Identification of key poverty issues

    Situation analysis helps in understanding the extent to which poverty is biting the poor. It takes into account the past, present circumstances that have been obtaining in the area and tries to focus on the future trends. In Uganda, the PPA reports are clear manifestations of this approach. Unless this step is properly done, all the other steps that follow without this will be like writing on water.

    3.1.2 Policy development and Formulation of strategies/plans

    Policies determine the environment and framework within which development takes place. Get the policies right, it is argued, and successful development will follow. Nevertheless, the tactical processes of development also need attention and, for the foreseeable future, projects are likely to form a major part of these tactics. Projects and the project approach are an instrument of policy, and are means by which policies are put into practice. The change, which is inherent in any form of economic, institutional or social development, is brought about by initiative, impetus and, where necessary capital investment

    The need to link appropriate policies to appropriate projects is an increasingly important element of the development process geared towards poverty eradication. Whatever their shortcomings, projects are an important mechanism for implementing policies: they are, and will remain, demonstrations of the effects of policies at a practical level. They also provide a means of assessing the impact of development initiatives on people. For example, a policy to attain self-sufficiency in rice (as promoted by H.E. Prof. Gilbert Bukenya, the vice president) may well be implemented through a series of projects related to the supply of irrigation facilities, development of improved seed, and provision of related inputs, such as training and marketing. A review of these projects, together or singly, increases our knowledge of the possible effect of the policy both on the economy and on individuals such as the farmer and the consumer. Similarly, a structural adjustment programme may include a requirement to reduce the size of the public sector.

    In Uganda, the PEAP has guided the formulation of government policy since its inception in 1997. Under this plan, Uganda is being transformed into a modern economy in which people in all sectors can participate in economic growth. This implies a number of conditions:
    · The economy requires structural transformation, including the modernisation of agriculture, the development of industries, which build on demand and supply linkages from agriculture, and continued institutional development in the legal and financial sectors.
    · Poor people must be able to participate in this growth, both by expanding smallholder agriculture and by increasing employment in industry and services.
    · Economic growth must be sustainable, high quality and broadly based.
    · The non-material aspects of poverty must be addressed; participatory studies have shown that insecurity, illness, isolation, and disempowerment are as important to the poor as low incomes.
    Uganda's Poverty Eradication Action Plan (PEAP) is established on four major pillars:
    · Creating a framework for economic growth and transformation
    · Ensuring good governance and security
    · Directly increasing the ability of the poor to raise their incomes
    · Directly increasing the quality of the life of the poor.

    Uganda's planning framework
    There have been a number of initiatives to strengthen the planning process in recent years. This includes major consultative exercises concerning Uganda's long term goals and objectives, such as Vision 2025, describing national aspirations, and the 1997 Poverty Eradication Action Plan as a national planning framework to guide detailed medium term sector plans, district plans, and the budget process. In turn, detailed sector-wide plans and investment programmes have reached varying stages of completion, set within an overall medium term expenditure framework.
    The PEAP provides a framework for the development of detailed sector plans and investment programmes. Implementation of the PEAP demands sector-wide programming to determine sector objectives, outputs and outcomes expected from sector expenditures, and the activities which the expenditures will fund in order to achieve the desired outputs and outcomes.

    Table: 3 Planning process in Uganda
    Quick guide to planning processes

    Vision 2025: an overview of long term goals and aspirations by the year 2025

    The PEAP: the national planning framework on which to develop detailed sector strategies

    Sector Planning: technical specifications of sector priorities, disciplined by hard budget constraints

    District Planning: implementation plans for sector strategies based on local priorities / needs

    MTEF: annual, rolling 3 year expenditure planning, setting out the medium term expenditure priorities and hard budget constraints against which sector plans can be developed and refined

    District MTEF: setting out the medium term expenditure priorities and hard budget constraints Against which district plans can be developed and refined

    Annual Budget & District Budgets: annual implementation of the three year planning framework

    Donor; NGO; private sector: participating and sharing information / ideas in developing sector plans and budgets

    Participatory processes: bottom-up participation of districts in the planning and monitoring process, as well as participatory poverty assessments, providing essential feedback on progress towards poverty eradication goals

    The formulation (or preparation) stage involves the definition of alternatives for the project, followed by the selection and planning of the optimum alternative, covering such aspects as size, location, technical details, markets and institutional arrangements. For the strengthening of an agricultural extension effort it would involve identification of the skills which were lacking, assessing methods of providing those skills, perhaps through a particular type training programme, and estimating the benefits expected

    3.1.3 Appraisal

    Appraisal is the process in which all aspects of the project are reviewed, in order that the decision whether or not to proceed can be made. Appraisal should cover technical, financial, economic, social and organizational aspects of the intervention to fight poverty; others, such as environmental, administrative, gender or political impacts, may also need to be considered. In reality, the decision-making implied by appraisal should go on throughout the preparation phase, as those working on the intervention to fight poverty continually review and refine the strategies

    3.1.4 Implementation
    Following detailed design there may well be another period of appraisal and negotiation to finalize details of the plan. When this has been completed, implementation of the intervention to fight poverty can commence. Implementation is the stage at which the institutions are established and facilities constructed. It is the stage, which involves the disbursement of the largest portion of the funds.

    The operational phase of the project is the period during which the assets created by the intervention to fight poverty are put to work and yield a flow of benefits (the mine is producing minerals which can be processed and marketed, or the extension workers are trained and working with farmers). Strictly speaking, the intervention phase has been completed by the time operations commence.

    3.1.5 Evaluation
    Evaluation consists of investigating and reviewing the effects of the completed intervention, to see whether the benefits, which were planned to flow from it, have indeed been realized, and whether these benefits have had their intended consequences.

    Although the phenomenon of poverty is complicated, and qualitatively different in various countries, certain general proposals would help decrease it, regardless of geographical location:
    · Introduction of basic social services;
    · Effective policies;
    · Better exploitation of the existing resources;
    · Improving human resources.

    These and other similar approaches would help in lowering poverty and social exclusion.

    3.2.1 Exchange of information and cooperation
    Exchange of information and cooperation between the nations is a good means to alleviate poverty. Creating social justice between the urban and rural sectors is also an effective measure to reduce poverty and many other social problems.

    3.2.2 Social inclusion
    To extend a definite formulation of the phenomenon of social exclusion, discrimination, and declining status, is really a difficult task. It is not possible to pinpoint a single criterion in that regard. Generally speaking, we can say that socially excluded people may face the following conditions:
    · they find it difficult to meet their ends;
    · they usually have no permanent professions;
    · they have no permanent and steady income, and therefore a minimum level of consumption;
    · they usually do not own properties of land type or household goods;
    · they are not given credit, and do not find the possibility of being educated, qualified and skilled, or acquire cultural capital;
    · they are also usually excluded from the benefits and public facilities granted by the welfare state, from civil rights, and from equality before law;
    · there is no such possibility of their participating in the democratic process;
    · they seldom enjoy respect, humane treatment, understanding or personal integration (Silver: 1994).

    To further substantiate the phenomenon, we can add a definition to better describe "social exclusion" as the lack of a powerful relationship between individuals and the main institutions and mechanisms which produce or distribute economic resources: labor market, state, family, community or other interpersonal networks (Karantinos: 1990)

    To reduce poverty, countries must take serious initiatives among which investment in basic social services, promoting efficient and sustainable growth, and elimination of policy distortions which prejudice the poor's interests are of prime importance.

    To reduce poverty, social exclusion, declining status, and discrimination, a two - pronged approach must be put into practice consisting of:

    · Policies that promote efficient growth, making use of the poor's most abundant asset -- labor, and
    · Public expenditures and institutions that provide equitable access to education, health care and other social services.

    3.2.3 Sustainable poverty alleviation
    The main objective of many countries today is sustainable poverty reduction. Given limited resources, more poverty reduction can be achieved if pursued through economically efficient policies, programmes, and expenditures. Economic stability and sustainable policies count much in solving the poverty issue and social exclusion in developing world in general, and in Africa in particular. To this end, it is essential to understand the motivations and constraints of the poor men and women, and those who interact with them such as their higher income neighbors, potential employers, providers of credit, and landlords while evaluating the impact of policies, programmes. These can be as follows;

    v Through productivity improvement and adequate investment in human capital, expansion and diversification of economic activities in the rural areas, the quality of life will improve, migration to urban areas will be discouraged, and hence a state of social land economic normalization will emerge.

    v Expanding the scope and coverage of social services, and improvement of their quality including family planning, educational facilities, among others will be expected to ease the phenomenon of poverty and the related implications. In building the capability of the massive rural poor in Africa, skills training and non-formal education are largely emphasized and are known as priority proposals.

    v A realistic and appropriate target would be, not only to eliminate relative poverty, but also to raise the level of welfare of the poorest citizens. Recent development programmes in many Asian countries have tended to focus mainly on cities and towns rather than villages. The "urban bias" which is quite touchable in many of the region's societies, often results in a widening gap between the poorer rural areas and the wealthier urban ones. Health is a sector where this bias is quite clear, and a matter which needs due consideration.

    v Not only better physical infrastructures and transport systems are required for these societies, but a rural health awareness campaign, and adequate means and services must be provided in these deprived and excluded societies. The high rates of maternal and infant mortality in many rural areas provide a sobering illustration of the need for a greater emphasis on services for many rural communities in Africa, Asia and the Caribbean.

    v The case of Uganda's progress in reducing mass poverty is admirable. However, it was achieved during a period in which the economy grew at nearly 7 percent per year. Growth is now sagging toward 5 percent per year. Because of rapid population growth, economic stagnation would cause the absolute number of poor people to grow quickly, erasing previous gains. The table below illustrates:
    Year Total Population % of Impoverished Number of impoverished
    92/93 17 million 56 9.5 million
    97/98 19.7 million 44 8.7 million
    00/01 22.2 million 35 7.8 million
    05/06 25.5 million 35 9.0 million
    Source: Uganda National Household Survey 1999/2000 and Projections.

    Among other proposals, the following key elements could be used in policy planning related to poverty alleviation with special reference to Asian societies:

    (a) Deregulation and the provision of information
    (b) Area development,
    (c) Empowerment of women and other excluded groups,
    (d) Confronting welfare issues,
    (e) Macro-economic stability,

    The African, Asian and Caribbean countries, which compose most poor populations in the world, must not only plan and emphasize on the urban poor, but they must simultaneously consider the rural poverty too. In this context, full efforts must be made for alleviating the problems of the urban poor by launching massive anti-poverty programmes and by cooperating with NGOs and private sector.

    Due to the great gap between standard of living in rural areas and that of the urban areas, a broad range of migration types is in operation in Africa. Hence, such policies and programmes must be adopted by the African governments in particular and planning organizations, with special focus on introducing a package of measures creating conditions so that the rural poor are not compelled to migrate, and can improve their social and economic position in their existing environments, and sustain awareness through various publicity measures.

    The governments should seek to tackle the problems of rural as well as urban poverty and social exclusion in an integrated manner. As the financial crisis usually badly affects family among other institutions, adequate measures must be taken in this regard so as to decrease the implications of poverty and social exclusion. These implications appear in the form of breakdown of economies, job retrenchment, interruption of basic social services, food shortages, and even civil and political unrest. Under such conditions, relevant governments should take steps to ensure the continuation of socio-economic projects so that living standards and quality of life, particularly for the poor are not adversely affected.

    In this context, comprehensive and integrated family development programmes have to be developed to address the impact of socio-economic development on family structures, relationships and life-styles. However, poverty and affluence cannot co-exist in harmony (Dube:1995). Diseased parts of humankind can be a threat to the section enjoying good health. In the same way, poverty of nations, or even of some sectors would eventually prevent or suspend the development of nations. Therefore, a sustainable / balanced development must be followed so as to eradicate poverty.

    3.2.4 Youth and Poverty
    Due to declining mortality levels and the persistence of high fertility levels, a large number of developing countries with special reference to Asia continue to have very large proportions of children and young people in their populations. For the less developed regions as a whole in1996, about 34 percent of population has been estimated to stand below the age of 15. Poverty, having a devastating impact on children's health and welfare, has dark implications too. Children in poverty are at high risk formal nutrition and disease, and for falling prey to labor exploitation, trafficking, neglect, sexual abuse and drug addiction (Population & Development Review, 1995).

    The ongoing and future demands created by large young populations, particularly in terms of health, education, employment etc., represent major challenges and responsibilities for families, local communities, countries and the international community. It is to be recognized that children are the most important resource for the future, and that greater investments in them by parents and societies are essential to the achievement of sustained economic growth and development. Hence, so far as the youth are concerned, if they are not demographically controlled, their quantitative increase will badly affect their qualitative status leading to socio-economic challenges and the like.

    High population growth rate too as a key fact

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  • The Roots, Emergence, and Growth of the Uganda Peoples Congress, 1600-1985
    The politics of Uganda, since its independence in 1962, has been so intertwined with the fortunes of the Uganda Peoples' Congress (UPC) that it is impossible to discuss any aspect of the country without UPC being a major factor. The UPC played a leading role in the preparations that led to and shaped independence, and later formed the government that received the instruments of Independence on 9 October 1962. Thereafter, for eight crucial years at a stretch, being the party in power, the UPC molded the destiny of Uganda until it was overthrown in 1971. What followed is the now familiar story of the rule of fascist Idi Amin, the struggle against which UPC constituted the leading component. When Idi Amin was removed in 1979 and the Uganda National Liberation Front (UNLF) led by Yusufu Lule, rather than UPC, came to power, political instability continued until UPC came to power in December 1980. In July 1985 UPC was overthrown by a military Junta that was in turn overthrown by the National Resistance Movement (NRM) led by Yoweri Museveni. There is resistance to N.R.M. organized by the UPC, a fact which testifies to its resilience. This being the case, and there being not much study of UPC (Santhamurthy,T.V. 1975: 442), this article is an attempt at a study of the UPC, with the hope that such a study can contribute to a greater understanding of the politics of Uganda. For "at this stage of Africa's development political parties not only illuminate the nature of African politics, but also are important determinants of the unfolding African political scene."(Coleman, J.S. & Rosenberg, C.G. 1964:1)
    It is important to point out at the outset that UPC is not a political party in the strict sense of the term. Unlike other political parties whose members are brought and held together by a single ideology, the membership of UPC is composed of a spectrum of members ranging from left-wing radicals to plain republicans and nationalists. As a political movement, the UPC consists of peoples with a similarity of historical experiences which have given rise to shared attitudes, preconceptions, hopes, fears, longings and dislikes. The relative cohesion UPC has maintained since its formation has in the main been due to a psychological unity, a common emotional bond strengthened and given form by things like the party constitution, manifesto, and rituals. The main impetus of this psychological unity is the similar experiences which the various nationalities of Uganda had with Baganda (1): first, in the tribal wars in the pre-colonial days, then in the use British colonialism made of the Baganda, and lastly with the rabid ethnic chauvinism of the Baganda in the period immediately preceding the formation of UPC on March 9, 1960.
    A generalized consciousness of resentment and resistance, such as the one, which obtained in many nationalities towards the Baganda before the formation of UPC, takes a long time to form. The earliest point in history from which we can trace the evolution of this consciousness is around 1600. Up to that point the Kingdom of Bunyoro-Kitara(2) had been the most powerful nationality in the region. As a result of Bunyoro-Kitara's preoccupation with an attempted secession on her western borders, a situation, which rendered her eastern frontiers relatively undefended; and Buganda's recovery over a period of time, Buganda was able to accumulate adequate military strength with which to effectively launch an offensive against Bunyoro. (Kiwanuka,M.S.M. 1975: 19-30) Being rather limited, these advantages only enabled Buganda to recover her previously lost territory. However, in due course, from the reign of Kabaka Mawanda (1674-1704), as a result of annexing the tributary of Kooki from Bunyoro, Buganda acquired immense advantage. These territories Buganda had acquired had very important consequences: "until then Buganda had been very short of iron and weapons, and had to buy their iron from Bunyoro. Now, however, Bunyoro had lost not only the rich reservoir of technical knowledge of smiths of Buddu and Kooki."(Kiwanuka, M.S.M. 1968: 607) Controlling these strategic factors, and given the fact that Bunyoro was involved in formidable domestic problems, Buganda went on to defeat Bunyoro battle after battle, and consequently eclipsed Bunyoro as a dominant power in the region. This dominance was to last unchalenged until the eve of the colonization of Uganda, when during the reign of Omukama (King) Kabalega, Bunyoro regained her military strength and began recovering her territory. In the course of the two centuries that this dominance lasted, the Baganda embraced an acute sense of nationality chauvinism on the one hand, and the nationalities dominated by the Baganda developed deep resentment of the Baganda.
    Buganda invades Busoga:
    Yet the Banyoro were not the only people who suffered the humiliation of being conquered and dominated by the Baganda; the other people to suffer were the clans which were eventually to constitute the nationality called Basoga (3) to the east of Buganda. While Kabaka Mawanda and his armies were driving Abagerere through Bulondonganyi into Bukuya, they became attracted to and invaded the rich states of Busoga. At the time the Basoga states were militarily weak and not united.(Kiwanuka,M.S.M. 1971: 76) The Basoga were organized in loose confederation of clans, each of which was not only independent but also jealous of each other and engaged in frequent warfare. Such a state of affairs made Busoga very vulnerable. None other than Professor Kiwanuka, himself a Muganda, tells us that the victories of the Baganda "were sullied by deeds of atrocity, and marked by dreadful slaughter and arson. The terror which Mawanda's armies struck has left the impression that an army of professional brigands could not have behaved worse."(Kiwanuka, S.M. 1971: 76-77) The name of Mawanda unleashed terror and horror among the Basoga, giving rise to the Lusoga (adjective from Busoga) saying " Omuganda Mawanda olumbe lwekirago lwaita mama na taata " (Mawanda, the nefarious Muganda, slaughtered all our mothers and fathers.) (Kiwanuka,M.S.M. 1971: 77) Following the death of Mawanda around 1704, there was a pause in Buganda's wave of aggression and expansionism. The two kings who reigned after Mawanda (Mwanga and Kagulu) had immense personal and domestic problems which confined their energies home. It was when Kyabagu (1704-1734) came to the throne that Buganda reactivated its expansionist campaigns. (Kiwanuka,M.S.M. 1971: 78-80) At one time when Kyabagu led a ferocious band of Baganda to invade Busoga, he found Busoga country pleasant and more peaceful than Buganda and decided to settle in Jinja and incorporate Busoga into Buganda. This evil design met very stiff resistance from the Basoga and Kyabagu and his army had to leave for Buganda. But this unity that the Basoga had built to resist the invading Baganda did not last; its collapse made the subjugation of the Basoga possible right up to the inception of British colonial rule. John Roscoe observes that as late as 1890 the Basoga did not only have to pay tribute to the Kabaka of Buganda (Kiwanuka,M.S.M. 1971:142-3; Wilson, C.T.& Felkin, R.W. 1882: 149; Roscoe, J. 1924:149), they were also politically tied to Buganda as some sort of tributary.
    Even areas as distant as what later became known as Bukedi were not safe from Ganda invasions and plunder (Rowe, J: 1967: 168). In 1863 there was a local dispute in Busoga. One of the disputants was called Kalende, whose maternal ancestry was in Bukedi, brought in a force of 'Bakedi' to aid him. The `Bakedi', being able warriors easily captured the estates desired by their nephew Kalende. However, Wakoli, the Soga chief who lost, petitioned Kabaka Mutesa, making sure he took with him an appropriate present of ivory. Mutesa summoned Kalende and kept him in prison for four to five months, a duration long enough for Wakoli's subjects to reinstate themselves in the disputed villages. Eventually, when Kalende returned home feeling humiliated, he wasted no time in recalling his relatives to administer another beating of Wakoli. Wakoli too went right back to Mutesa who immediately dispatched an expedition to demonstrate to the 'Bakedi' the power and authority of the Kabaka of Buganda. Attracted by the wealth of cattle in Bukedi, the Baganda chiefs enlisted in large numbers. The "Bakedi" laid for the invading Baganda an ingenious military trap: they left the Baganda to enter their country with ease, only to ambush them on their return when they were encumbered with loot and booty. The whole rear division was annihilated in so decisive a defeat that Kabaka Mutesa found it wise not to attempt revenge. (Oboth-Ofumbi, A.C.K. 1959: 4-5)
    The imperial tendencies of the kingdom of Buganda also affected the peoples inhabiting the area to the west of the kingdom and out of whom the British were to carve out the former kingdom of Ankole(4). Having annexed Buddu as we have already shown, Buganda not only raided the nascent Nkore 'empire', (Morris, H.F. 1960: 11-12) it also interfered in her internal politics and civil wars in attempt to place puppets on the Nkore throne. An example of both plunder and interference took place when Omugabe (King) Kahaya died and his son, Nyakashaija, was installed on the throne. To ensure firm hold of the throne, Nyakashaija attacked and defeated his elder brother, Rwabishengye. The defeated Rwabishengye sought aid from Kabaka Kamanya (1798-1825) of Buganda and entered Nkore with an army from Buganda. There was absolutely no justification for Buganda to provide Rwabishengye this assistance; it was well known throughout all the kingdoms of this region that the first-born prince never succeeds to the throne. The motive for this Ganda involvement in the politics of Nkore was plunder; and this soon revealed itself when, much as Nyakashaija fled from the invading forces, Rwabishengye, instead of taking over as the Omugabe, merely returned to Buganda with plunder. (Karugire, S.R. 1971: 179-80; Morris, H.F. 1960: 12) This had not been the first nor was it to be the last case of Buganda plundering Nkore. In the reign of Omugabe Gashyonga alone, Buganda, under the leadership of Kabaka Suna II (1825-1852), invaded and plundered Nkore three times.
    When Omugabe Mutumbuka died around 1870 and the customary scramble for succession erupted, Mutesa of Buganda sent an envoy to intercede. Ostensibly Kabaka Mutesa's envoy was to make blood brotherhood with Makumbi, the leader of the Nkore delegation and the surviving legitimate claimant to the throne, something which is only undertaken in good faith from both sides; however, the envoy had secret instructions to kill as many as possible of Makumbi's supporters. At a meeting set at Kabula for the performance of the ritual, the supporters of Makumbi were led into a trap and no less than 70 leaders, including 20 princes, were massacreed in cold blood. It was the height of treachery that was difficult to forget. Until recently, elderly Banyankore were still remarking to Professor Karugire: "Only the Baganda could have thought of such a thing."(Karugire,S.R. 1971:240) Fortunately, the faction with legitimate claims rallied around one of the princes of Nkore, and went on to defeat Mukwenda, the pretender to the throne supported by the Baganda.
    The next injustice Ankole suffered in favour of Buganda was the loss of the territories of Kabula and some parts of the former kingdom of Bwera, which had been part of the grazing lands frequently occupied by Nkore pastoralists. The events leading to this expansion of Buganda by the British began with the deposition of Kabaka Mwanga of Buganda. Some Baganda who could not accept this went over to Kabula and, basing themselves there, put up very spirited resistance to the British and erstwhile rulers in Buganda. Between 1897 and 1899 the resistance was so successful that they nearly closed the border between Buganda and Ankole -- only highly protected convoys could make transit between the two kingdoms. The authorities in Ankole were accused of failing to administer the area and, in 1899, the British Sub-Commissioner of Ankole District was instructed to remove the Munyankole chief from Kabula and replace him with a Muganda one. Henceforth the area was to be regarded as Buganda territory although it had been "on the "Ankole side of the border."(Karugire, S.M. 1971: 214)
    Anglo-Ganda alliance:
    Eventually, an empire,however powerful, gets to be challenged. This happened to Buganda in the last quarter of the nineteenth century. Bunyoro, under the able leadership of Kabalega, not only got reorganized but also acquired muskets from the Arabs. On account of these two factors, Bunyoro "succeeded in driving the Baganda back, only to find that their final victory was frustrated by the arrival of the British who protected the Baganda with rifles and Maxim guns." (Danbur, A.R. 1965: 39) The Baganda who were being seriously pressurized by the Banyoro, had gone into alliance with the British who had come to colonize the Nile valley and were looking for an ally. In any colony, outside control by a few thousand colonisers is impossible without winning allies from among the colonized peoples. A number of factors made the Baganda and not any other nationality the choice for this alliance: they had a fairly developed social and administrative system, a standing army of a sort, and a history of conquest and expansion stretching for three centuries. While the British consciously made use of the Baganda, to the Baganda their being used was mistaken for the continuation of their dominance and expansion. To the British, on the other hand, once "established in Buganda, their preferred method of consolidating themselves on the Upper Nile was simply to enlarge Buganda." (Roberts, A.D. 1962: 435) The two forces thus made perfect common cause in imposing colonial rule in Uganda.
    The first operation the Anglo-Ganda alliance mounted was against their most serious threat, the Kingdom of Bunyoro-Kitara.(Danbur, A.R. 1965: 84-87) This was in December 1893 when Colonel Colville led a full military campaign against Kabalega and the Banyoro. After suffering a series of defeats, Kabalega was driven from his country and forced to take refuge in Lango in 1894. As a reward for assistance against the Banyoro, Colonel Colville in the early part of 1894 promised the Baganda chiefs that all Bunyoro territory south of River Kafu would be incorporated into Buganda. This was roughly the area comprised of Buyaga and Bugangazzi (Bugangaizi) northern Singo, Buruli and the formerly semi-independent area of northern Bugerere which had been part of Bunyoro territory.(Dunbar,A.R. 1965; Roberts, A.D. 1962: 194) Colonel Colville was forced by illness to leave Uganda before implementing this promise. However, when E.J.L. Berkeley who succeeded Colville was in 1896 appointing a Munyoro to be chief of this area, he was reminded by the Ganda chiefs present that his predecessor had pledged the area to be part of Buganda. Berkeley consulted the Foreign Office who instructed him to implement the promise. The incorporation into the Kingdom of Buganda of this territory, which was clearly part of Bunyoro with Banyoro inhabiting, was so blatantly unjust that two British officers then serving in Bunyoro, Pulteney and Foster, resigned their posts in protest against the decision. Banyoro never accepted this situation and this loss of territory was to become the festering "lost counties" issue which was a subject of many deputations by the Kingdom of Bunyoro to the British throughout the colonial period.
    The other victim of the Anglo-Ganda alliance was the former Kingdom of Toro. Formerly a mere province of the empire of Bunyoro-Kitara, Toro rebelled and seceded from the empire during Bunyoro's decline in the early part of the 19th century. By 1830, Toro had become a fully independent kingdom ruled by a Babito dynasty descended from Kaboyo. However, with the resurgence of Bunyoro under the leadership of Kabalega, Toro was brought back under Nyoro hegemony. Later, as a result of the defeat of Bunyoro by the Anglo-Ganda alliance, one of the major losses suffered by Bunyoro was Toro. Although Toro territory could not be added to Buganda, taking advantage of their warm relations with the British, the Baganda were to install Kasagama, a Toro princes who had been in exile in Buganda on the Toro throne. This suave move gave Buganda access to immense influence in Toro. Baganda became the most influential advisers at court, and were the teachers of Christianity. Eventually Luganda (the language of the Baganda) rather than Lutoro was to be used by officials of the government of Toro. Ganda customs and manners too did eclipse the Toro ones at court.
    This Ganda sub-imperialism in Toro was soon to meet with very stiff resistance. (Steinhart,E.I. 1971: 105-107) It all began when Princess Bagaya, Kasagama's sister returned to Toro from captivity in Buganda where her anti-Ganda sentiment had been sharpened. She had been captured from Bunyoro where she was wife to Kabalega and taken to Buganda when the Anglo-Ganda alliance overran Bunyoro. In captivity in Buganda her relationship to the Baganda was that of a captive and hostile member of the dynasty of Buganda's arch enemy. It must have been heart-rending for her, on being repatriated to Toro, to be greeted in Luganda, the language of her captors, by her brother's messengers. Her brother's chiefs too addressed her in the language of her captors. Her food was prepared in Ganda style and Luganda hymns sung in praise of her return. Bagaya lost no time in becoming a champion of Toro customs and culture, and a focus of anti-Ganda sentiment in the kingdom.
    While indirect influence was being exerted in Toro, other areas were being assimilated outright. On the very day of Ganda expansion into Bunyoro territory in the areas that later constituted the "lost counties," the Kooki Agreement by which the former sovereign kingdom of Kooki was incorporated into Buganda was signed. This was done persuant to the British strategy on the one hand, and the Buganda illusion of continuing three centuries of expansion on the other hand; both of which have already been alluded to. Two times, with Ankole and Toro being targets, there was a real possibility of this Buganda "expansion" westwards getting very serious. Faced with administrative uncertainties in the kingdoms to the west of Buganda, Commissioner Berkeley had "proposed to and the foreign office agreed that in due course the whole of these two western kingdoms (Toro and Bunyoro), as well as Ankole to the southwest should be incorporated into Buganda, just as Kooki and large parts of Bunyoro had already been."(Morris, H.F. 1960: 44) To implement this policy with respect to Toro, in March 1897, an envoy of the Buganda Lukiiko (Council), with the foreknowledge of the colonial authorities, suggested to Kasagama that Toro should forfeit its independence and accept the "blessing" of becoming part of Buganda as Kooki and Kabula had done. In the proposed arrangement Kasagama would become a county chief within the Kingdom of Buganda. Kasagama both resented and rejected the offer. Needless to say such imperial desires by Buganda, and such bias by the British, was to irritate other nationalities and cause them to resent Buganda.
    An ally who had up to then served the British so well, and who was to still serve them no one knew for how much longer, deserved a reward and an incentive. Such a prize came in the process of the constitution of the Uganda Protectorate and the newly constituted Buganda aristocracy. It took the form of an agreement or 'treaty', the Uganda Agreement of 1900 between the British and the new aristocracy the British had put in place to rule Buganda as representatives of the Kingdom of Buganda. The impact of the agreement was to accord Buganda a distinctive and privileged position as compared to the rest of Uganda. The agreement also enabled the Kingdom of Buganda to retain a degree of autonomy which served to preserve its political institutions, as well as secure her a favoured position in the governance of the colony. Further, the agreement, by allocating land to certain chiefs, served to create a permanent ruling class in Buganda. (Rowe, J. 1964: ) Finally, apart from these concrete results, the very signing of the agreement - something which had not been done with the rest of the other peoples of Uganda, set off myths that the relationship between Buganda and the British was a quasi-diplomatic one; something which, though unreal, was to have significant implications in the later history of Uganda.
    Kakungulu's exploits:
    Meanwhile the British objective to impose colonialism in the north eastern part of what became Uganda, and the illusion that the Baganda were expanding an empire had dovetailed to give rise to a formidable army of the Baganda led by Kakungulu. (Gray, J.M. March, 1963; Thomas, H.B: 1936; Twaddle, M. ) Three main interests had converged to constitute this army. Kakungulu had the ambition of founding himself a kingdom, the Baganda under his leadership desired war booty, and, the British wanted to subjugate the people of this area. The pattern of subjugation was "first an armed expedition would be made from an established fort to a new area; the pretexts were often obscure, sometimes a request for help from a warring faction or sometimes a threat of attack by local inhabitants; after skirmishes or pitched battles a new fort would be established and a garrison of Baganda installed." (Lawrence,J.C.D. 1955: 18 ref 7) Apart from the resentment that such foreign intrusion was bound to arouse, bitterness also came from Kakungulu's method of warfare which involved the erection of forts - one of which "took only three weeks to build and whose massive ramparts which can be seen to this day must have required the labor of many hundreds of unwilling workers." (Gray, J.M. 1936: 19) The practice of taking war booty which included women and cattle was another cause not only of immediate resistance but of long-term hatred. And largely because the British were in the background, and the Baganda were the ones not only immediately prosecuting the war but also meting out what the people regarded as gross injustice, the brunt of resentment ended being targeted at the Baganda.
    After every successful campaign to subjugate an area, the process of instituting an administrative system immediately followed. Like the campaigns to subjugate, the institution of administration too unleashed experiences which were to contribute to the dichotomisation of the politics of Uganda, with Buganda on one side and the rest of the country on the other. This pattern arose from the British utilization of the Baganda in the initial administration of the colony. As early as 1893 Lugard had argued that "subordinate officials for the administration of Uganda (by which he meant Buganda) may be supplied by the country itself, but in the future we may even draw from thence educated and reliable men to assist in the government of neighboring countries (meaning the rest of Uganda)."(Lugard, F.D. 1893: 650) This argument was later to be accorded high official sanction by the Acting Commissioner of Uganda, F.J. Jackson, when he wrote: "The Baganda methods of administration though by no means perfect should be the standard." (Hansen, H.B. 1984: 368 ref 9) In line with this thinking, when time came for establishing an administrative system, not only was the Ganda administrative structure imposed on the other areas, the Baganda were also used as administrative agents in the initial administration of the colony.
    There arose two dialetically related but contradictory responses to this policy. While their use as administrative agents and the adoption of their structure filled the Baganda with immense pride, the same process caused the rest of the country to feel a sense of deep humiliation. Professor Burke, the anthropologist who did a study of some areas in which the Ganda administrative system was imposed and agents used, was to observe that the subsequent political history of these areas is a product of rebellion against the Baganda. (Burke, F.G. 1964: 177; also see 14, 13, 17, 18, & 132 ) Yet the administrative system per se was not the only problem; the Baganda agents managing it not only expected feudal decorum which was unpopular with their subjects also had a very irritating condescending attitude to those who they considered beneath them. The overall effect of all of the experiences of those whom the Baganda were administering was a kind of internal colonialism, often much harsher and humiliating than the British one. The result was very spirited resistance to the Baganda agents all over the colony.
    Ganda colonial administrative agents:
    Perhaps the most determined resistance to the use of Ganda agents in administration came from Bunyoro. As a result of the spirited resistance to British intrusion the Banyoro had put up, the British officials viewed them as " hostile to programs and incapable of efficient government." (Steinhart, E.I. 1973: 48; also see Uzoigwe, G.N. 1972; and Santyamurthy, T.V. 1986: 200 ref 129) It therefore became necessary to introduce Ganda chiefs in Bunyono to serve as `tutors' to the regime of collaborators being established there. In 1901, the Ganda chief, James Miti was installed as chief in Bunyoro. This was soon followed by an increasing number of Ganda agents being appointed. By June 1902, the district officer in Bunyoro was observing "the very bad feeling that exists between the Banyoro chiefs, and those who have been brought from Uganda (meaning Buganda) and elsewhere and put in charge of some of the counties."(Steinhart, E.I. 1973: 50) This bad feeling was arising from the fears among the Banyoro that their once proud kingdom would be taken away from them by means of piecemeal annexation or expropriation by the Baganda as had been the case of the "lost counties." There was also the fear that the Ganda would eventually take over the full authority in Bunyoro, and thus turn Bunyoro into a colony of Buganda.
    Eventually as the Nyoro chiefs and other relatively enlightened people gained confidence, they began to question the rationale of the use of Ganda agents as chiefs in Bunyoro. This questioning was to exascerbate as James Miti's territorial authority and influence over Duhaga, the Nyoro monarch intensified. Duhaga was sharply criticized by the Babito, the ruling caste in Bunyoro, for allowing the Ganda to gain a foothold in the kingdom, and for permitting himself to be controlled by his Ganda advisors. To these grievances must be added the cultural imperialism of the Baganda whose most painful aspect was the use of Luganda as the official language of state. The situation continued to deteriorate, and by 1907 the Banyoro could not take it anymore. In February the Banyoro rebelled: the Baganda chiefs were driven out of the countryside and sought refuge in Hoima, the capital. During the crisis, the Banyoro sent envoys to the neighboring kingdoms of Toro, Ankole and Busoga and "the lost counties" in the hope of finding allies who might extend the anti-Ganda rebellion through the Ganda dominated provinces. Although the revolt was eventually suppressed, the "Nyangire Rebellion", as it became known, lasted several months and had a long-lasting effect.
    Northern Uganda too had its share of Ganda abuse. As administrators, the Baganda were brought into south western Lango (5) in 1907 and western Lango in 1909. (Ingham, K. 1958: 156-157; Roberts, A.D. 1962: 441) Considering the fact that the Langi had fought and defeated the Baganda in the battle of Dokolo, the Baganda were a very unfortunate choice for this task. Further, as John Tosh, the historian who did reseach on political authority among the Langi observed: "For such a delicate mission (establishing an administration), the Ganda agents were in many respects ill-qualified. They came from a highly centralized, hierachical and competitive society. Traditionally, they despised those of their neighbours, refering to them as Bakedi (naked people). In the 19th Century the Ganda had raided the Bakedi for booty; they now saw their govenment authority as renewed opportunity for plunder and profit."(Tosh, J. 1974: 54) Between January 1910 and July 1911 alone, there occurred "109 conflicts between Baganda agents and their followers and the local natives, in which five agents and 10 followers have been killed, 6 agents and 11 followers wounded, and 170 natives killed or wounded."(Tosh, J. 1974: 51; 3-54; 58; 62 etc;)
    The neighbours of the Langi, the Acholi (6) too suffered abuse in the hands of the Baganda. In the initial period of the colonisation of the Acholi, there was a tendency to use the Baganda agents as administrators on the fringes of Gulu district. These agents were often inadequately supervised, a situation which resulted in the agents creating their little empires for themselves. Such behaviour led to deep and widespread resentment which often erupted in violence and the killing of the agents. (Dwyer, J.W. 1972: 204 ref 72; also see note number 1) In Bugisu (7), too, where the Baganda had been used in violent imposition of colonialism, there was stiff resistance to the use of the Baganda as administrators. As Dr. La Fontaine, an anthropologist who studied Bugisu observed that through the use of Baganda, the British "provided the Gisu with the stimulus of alien rulers, who not only appear to have despised those very cultural traits which symbolized tribal identity to the Gisu, but were prepared to proselytize their own way of life, which differed strikingly from traditional Gisu custom. An implicit comparison with the Ganda and a desire to achieve equal standing with them was an important strand in the development of Gisu tribalism."(La Fontaine, J.S. 1969: 183).
    Neighboring Bukedi district too was a hotbed of resistance to the Ganda agents. In 1905 there erupted a serious and spontaneous revolt in Padhola country. The Ganda chief administering the area, Mika Kisaka had exceeded the instructions of the British Collector and was committing what the Jopadhola people felt were unbearable excesses. Furthermore, the Jopadhola people were incensed by the arrogance of the Baganda and the perpetual sexual indulgence of the Ganda with the local women. In June 1905 two incidents which occurred simultaneously in two different parts of Padhola flared into violent revolts which resulted in the death of a number of Baganda agents.(Santhamurthy, T.V. 1986: 265-266)
    The western region of Uganda too had its share of irritation from Baganda. In 1908, for instance, one of the Baganda chiefs who was administering Igara county in Ankole filed the following report: "I am writing to tell you about our district Egara, all the people here are rebellious, and they don't give us some food, if one of our men wants to walk about they want to kill him . . ." (Karugire, S.R. 1971: 232-3) Ankole's neighbors, the former district of Kigezi, too experienced resistance to the Baganda.(Hopkins, E.E. 1968 ) Here among the most irritating aspects of the Baganda agents was their use of the agency to exploit the people. A good example is the case of taxation. "The rupee was used as the currency for taxation during this period, and this was brought in by the Baganda, or only possessed by the chiefs. They would tell the people that one rupee, for example, would buy three goats, so that if a person failed to produce three rupees, he would have to pay nine goats. In this way a Muganda agent or trader would pay in rupees and take the goats, but if the goat owner refused, chances were that he would be arrested. Consequently, all his goats would be sold at the lowest prices." (Turyhikayo-Rugyema, B.1976: 124) Such naked injustice was bound to give rise to resistance. A number of uprisings took place during which a number of Baganda agents were killed. The resentment to the Ganda agents was to last long. Professor Santhyamurthy who conducted field research in Kigezi in the 1960s records that he "was regaled with many a tale of resistance to Ganda chiefs" by informants who were old enough to have lived during the period of Ganda rule.(Santhamurthy, T.V. 1986: 200 ref 128)
    Ganda separatism:
    With the imposition of colonialism over Uganda completed, further development in the colony - whether initiated by the British or by the colonized people, should have been national in character as it was in other colonies. This was not the case in Uganda; development tended to assume a dichotomy: Buganda, on the other hand, and the rest of the country on the other. The initial cause of this trend is the fact that both the missionaries and the colonialist began their work in Buganda, thereby giving the kingdom a head start. Further, as we have already explained, the Baganda were not only used as soldiers in the imposition of colonial rule, but also as initial administrators in the rest of the colony. All these occurrences and factors combined to imbue the Baganda with an acute sense of chauvinism, which in the context of the 1900 Agreement that retained Buganda as a separate and distinct entity, easily translated itself into a sense of separatism. As Professor Pratt was to observe, the Baganda continued to regard "themselves as a separate people and to view Buganda as an autonomous political unit. Buganda, not Uganda was their nation. They belonged to Uganda as part of British overrule. It touched neither their affections nor their sentiments. There was little sympathetic interest in being incorporated into a larger African nation and there was great sensitivity to any slight to tribal pride."(Low, D.A. & Pratt, R.C. 1960: 253)
    There is no doubt this kind of feeling was bound to clash with national development. The first time, Ganda separatism went against national development was in relation to the Legislative Council (Legico). When the Legico was initiated in 1921, the Kabaka of Buganda and his ministers rather than argue for greater African representation, as it was being done in other African colonies, sought to obtain assurances that Legco would not affect the 1900 Agreement. They wrote: "The safeguarding of native interests can best be done by maintaining inviolate the existing Agreement. The interests and welfare of Buganda will necessarily form a secondary consideration in view of the general interest and progress of the whole territory."(Low, D.A. & Pratt, R.C. 1960: 254; Furley,O. 1982: 138-39) The same sentiments were to be expressed by Serwano Kulubya, the leading Buganda delegate to the Joint Select Comittee on Closer Union in 1931. (Low, D.A. & Pratt, R.C. 1960: 254 ref. 2) The mere raising of these objections served to underscore the distinctiveness of the Kingdom of Buganda; and, the apparent success, such as in the case of Closer Union when it appeared Ganda pressure thwarted the move to East African federation, tended to fuel the fires of separatism. (Santhamurthy,T.V. 1986: 243) From then on, Baganda developed a tendency of resisting what in their opinion would result in interference in what they regarded as their internal affairs or would undermine Buganda's institutions or position as guaranteed by the practice of indirect rule and the 1900 Agreement. It is this tendency and the resistence to it by the rest of the people of Uganda that was to dichotomise the politics of the country.
    Ignatius Musazi:
    The 1930s was a period of relative economic decline throughout the colonies of Africa and this had major political consequences because the economic recession led to protests which constituted the beginnings of modern anti-colonial movements. The depression pinched even harder because it occurred in the context of rising expectations based on the relative prosperity of the first two decades of the century, when the terms of trade were relatively favourable to Africa, and peasants and traders had profited. As a result of the depressed level of the economy and the resulting curtailment of the colonial services, disillusionment set in. Two sets of different but related developments made this disillusionment particularly explosive. Not only had the representatives of pre-colonial polities - the chiefs and kings been absorbed into the colonial hierarchy as its most loyal collaborators, but the newly educated elite, far from seeking to return to pre-colonial structures, sought to share in the administration of the new order. Among those educated people were men like Dr. J.B. Danquah of Gold Coast (later Ghana), Chief Obafemi Awolowo of Nigeria, and Ignatius Musazi of Uganda. These were "the western-educated elite, who having reached and in some cases surpassed, the intellectual attainment of their colonial administrators, on the administrators' own terms, began to demand for participation in the administration. It is this class of people who led the criticism of the colonial structures throughout Africa in the late 1930s.
    While in other African colonies such as Nigeria and Ghana, this situation constituted the anvil upon which the nascent country wide national movement was forged, this was not the case in Uganda. Both the uneven nature of colonial development which made Buganda a more developed enclave even politically then, and the rubric of "indirect rule" which carved out a separate political arena in Buganda conditioned "an ambivalent nationalism not entirely divorced from parochialism" (Santhamurthy, T.V. 1986: 242-243) to develop alongside Buganda separatism. As a result, political agitation in Uganda during this period was not only limited to issues affecting Buganda but also geographically restricted to the kingdom. The main channel for this agitation was an organization variously called "Sons of Kintu" "the Grandsons of Kintu", or "the Descendants of Kintu" formed on May 28, 1938. The chief organizer and Secretary of the organization was Ignatius Kangave Musazi. Ganda neo-traditionalist in ideology, the organization had two main objectives: to direct the complaints of the farmers and merchants into channels where they would be heard; and to get rid of the government of Buganda then headed by Martin Luther Nsibirwa as Katikiro. Although the organization failed to attain most of its objectives, it succeeded first in mobilizing people in the countryside to a level which had never been attained in the colony before, and, secondly, in propelling Musazi into a long political career.
    The following year the Second World War broke out. Although the colonial system looked impregnable at the beginning of the war, it did not take long for the war to take so heavy a toll on it that in a sense the war became a major turning point in the liberation of Africa from colonial rule. The war brought "about demonstratable changes in the attitudes of the colonial powers towards the way in which they had administered their African subjects and placed them on the defensive about empire, the war also wrought major changes in the consciousness of the colonized peoples."(Crowder, M. 1975: 31-32) A major factor to put the colonial powers on the defensive was the rise to world leadership of both the United States and the Soviet Union, something which was largely conditioned by the war itself. As the war progressed, there might have arisen an impasse or the Germans might have won had the two powers not tipped the balance. This was to make the two powers very powerful. The two new superpowers were, for totally different reasons, to oppose colonialism and add voice to the internal opposition in Britain. The war also provided conditions for greater internal opposition to colonialism in Britain: the Labor Party, for intance, gained immense strength when its leader, Clement Attlee, became deputy Prime Minister in a coalition government.
    Apart from the effect the war had on the international context of colonialism, the war also triggered major changes in the domestic conditions of colonialism in Uganda. The medium for the war to cause far-reaching social transformations in Uganda was the participation of Africans in the war. Africans were not only enlisted to fight the war, but Africa was a major source of supplies. The total number of Africans who participated directly in the war is estimated at 533,084 of whom 76,166 were from Uganda. (Schleh, E.P.A. 1968: 20) To most of these recruits who had lived in isolated villages hardly affected by the colonial government, common military service had the effect of propelling the recruit to transcend former ethnic barriers. The period of total involvement with and dependency on an agency of the state had the effect of also inculcating in the recruit a new culture in which the state was from then on to play a major role.
    The war was also to greatly politicize the African soldiers. What caused them to get politicised was the necessity for the colonial powers to provide a stake which would serve to mobilize them to war. This had the effect, particularly in cases where outright concessions were made, to demonstrate to the colonized peoples that colonialism was not as invincible as they had previously thought. Further, by causing the movement of Africans to distant places such as India, exposed the combatants to a range of experiences much broader and inspiring in the anti-colonial struggles than they had encountered at home. Those who served in India, for instance, got first hand experience of the double standard of Britain. While being told that they were fighting to preserve freedom and democracy, in India, the combatants witnessed fellow colonial subjects being prevented from protesting British restriction on political freedom in India. Such experiences were to ignite a resolve in the combatants to wage struggles against colonialism when they returned home.
    Bataka Party:
    While this constituted the major immediate impetus to the evolution of countrywide nationalist movements in all other African colonies, this was not the case in Uganda. In Uganda these, conditions which were so favorable to mobilization, instead fueled two tendencies: the move towards Ganda separatism, and the evolution of an ambivalent nationalism. Of these two forces, both of which had emerged in the 1930s, the first to organize itself was Ganda neo-traditionalism and separatism. It organized as the Bataka Party founded in 1946. The previous year those who were to constitute the leadership of the Bataka Party had been at the leadership of the political struggles which culminated in the riots which broke out in January 1945. (Apter, D.E. 1961: 227) The senior mutaka who got involved in these 1945 struggles, James Miti, assumed the leadership of the Bataka Party and became the torchbearer of Buganda "nationalism".
    Much as the term mutaka has a distinct meaning, it was conveniently redefined to encompass every Muganda. "Every Muganda is a mutaka" was the slogan opportunistically coined to exploit the fact that to be a citizen of Buganda one had to first belong to a clan. The party was extremely reactionary, and ideologically committed to the purity of Ganda traditions and institutions. A large number of landlords were members of the party. (Apter, D.E. 1961: 249) A major point of contention for the Bataka party was the democratization of the Lukiko. They believed elective chieftaincy would serve to place their members in the Lukiko. "As a form of social and political organization, it claimed allegence on the basis of nationalism and support of Buganda . . ." (Apter, D.E. 1961: 249) A number of units of the party and some leading members, were of the view that clan identification with the Kabaka and Kiganda chauvinism could break all other forms of social stratification and affiliations. The party openly sought to preserve the more backward and negative aspects of Ganda culture. Thus, for instance, it attacked missionaries for having reduced the population of Buganda by introducing monogamous marriage.
    Simultaneously, as Ganda neo-traditionalism was organizing itself into the Bataka Party, a Janus-headed nationalism under the leadership of Musazi was also evolving. Although rather ambivalent, this was a direct response to the changed political conditions ushered in by the end of the war. In his speech opening the new parliament in November 1946, King George VI had declared: "In the territories for which my government is responsible, ... they will seek actively to promote the welfare of my peoples, to develop the economic life of the territories and to give my people all practical guidance in their march to self-government." (Ingham, K. 1958: 228-9) In line with this pronouncement, the colonial administration in Uganda carried out a number of reforms intended to prepare Uganda for independence. Of all these moves, the one which was to have the greatest impact in stimulating the people of Uganda politically to organize themselves, and later lead to the formation of UPC was the encouragement of the formation of cooperative societies. It not only led to the formation of the Uganda African Farmers Union (UAFU), but through the UAFU it laid a basis from which an anti-colonial movement was to be formed five years later. The issue around which the politically charged UAFU got organized was the marketing of cotton. The evolution of the marketing of cotton into a political issue arose from the way Britain had used its control of marketing structure to relate the prices paid to the growers to the low price paid for Uganda cotton by the British Ministry of Supply (Gartrell,B. 1979: 400) through its bulk-purchase agreements. The meagerness of the proceeds the growers received was further aggravated by the operation of a fund intended to stabilize the economy. The operation of these two factors had the effect of seriously depressing the proceeds reaching the producers. Between 1930 and 1938, the growers received an average of 60% of the proceeds from cotton exports, in the 1941-42 season they earned 45% and in the three following seasons their share ranged from 28% to 38%. (Ehrlich, C. 1965: 473) Furthermore this, growers were by this time bearing the full brunt of the tax on cotton exports as both exporters and ginners were no longer making a contribution to this source of government revenue. This was quite burdensome given that the cost of living had more than doubled. In response to these depressing economic conditions, people began to put pressure for greater returns from and greater share in the marketing of the basic export of the colony. There were two types of people putting pressure: the prosperous aspiring African entrepreneur, and also the more populist demand for participation through cooperative organization.
    Uganda African Farmer's Union:
    It was this populist aspiration which provided the basis for the formation of the Uganda African Farmers Union (UAFU) led by Musazi in 1947. The formation of the UAFU was a very significant step in the political development of Uganda, especially the national movement. With its formation, the national movement had reached the level of development which Hodgkin called associations which "provide the cells around which a nation-wide political organization can be constructed."(Hodgkin,T.L. 1956: 85; Twumasi, Y. :35) However, these positive contributions notwithstanding, the UAFU carried with it the achilles heel that had bedeviled the earlier attempt at a national movement in 1938. Much as the grievances about the marketing and ginning of cotton - the aspiration informing the UAFU was nation-wide, there was no attempt to broaden the union beyond Buganda so as to encompass the whole country. The channels that the Union sought to utilize, not only to organize itself but also voice its grievance, were traditional Ganda institutions, something which tended to exclude or repel the non-Ganda. From the very beginning, for instance, there was a curious overlapping between UAFU and the Bataka Party. (Apter, D.E. 1961: 251) There was also the curious coincidence of both organizations having trails going back to the " Sons of Kintu " movement of 1938. Further, Musazi is reported to have used Bataka units as the initial organizational base. Finally, much as the two organizations agitated separately, there was no doubt that from time to time they did overlap.
    By 1949 the desire of the people of Uganda to have a say in the marketing of cotton - whether by cooperative organizations or prosperous enterprising entrepreneurs, and the concomitant agitation for the same had reached crisis proportions. As part of the agitation, the peasants in Buganda responded to a call from their leadership to boycott the sale of their cotton: instead of selling the cotton, they stored it up in their huts. In this crisis, Musazi, through the Uganda Farmers' Union was leading the more progressive of the forces, and the Bataka Party was the vehicle for those imbued with unbridled Ganda neo-traditionalism. Simultaneously, the political struggles which had erupted in 1945 between the old establishment of the Ganda ruling class formed at the turn of the century, on the one hand, and the new aspiring elements consisting of the rising traders and the emerging educated class, on the other hand, had attained a new peak level. The "new men" did not only feel the leadership in Buganda was heavily influenced by the British colonial authorities, but, being Ganda neo-traditionalist, they also wanted to put a break on what they saw as the erosion of Ganda culture and institutions. They also wanted some degree of democratization. With the intensification of the political crisis in the colony, different as the Bataka Party and Farmers Union were, they became "thoroughly mixed together."
    As the principal organizers of both forces were Baganda and so the bulk of the people participating, the focus of attention inevitably shifted to the Kabaka and the political institutions of Buganda. The day before the first Lukiko session of 1949, one of the leaders of Bataka Party warned the Kabaka that the Lukiko would not sit unless the number of elected members was increased to 60 and certain chiefs were dismissed. (Apter, D.E. 1961: 257) The man was immediately arrested, hastily tried and imprisoned for two years. The following day crowds gathered for the opening session of the Lukiko and the Bataka threatened to obstruct the proceedings if their claims were not attended to. The Kabaka, accorded them audience, and promised to look into the matter of chiefs. Thereafter, for the next two months there was much public debate, with both Bataka and Farmers Union addressing rallies.(Apter, D.E. 1961: 257)
    Finally, the Bataka leaders decided to petition the Kabaka directly and to make representation in person. (Apter, D.E. 1961: 258-9) To this effect a pamphlet telling people to come to Mengo was distributed, and the people came in large numbers. A delegation of eight representatives of the Bataka Party was admitted to the audience of the Kabaka, but while they were presenting their demands, the crowd became restless and the police was called. As the police was attempting to arrest certain leaders, there was resistance touching off violence and rioting ensued. Buildings in Mengo (8) were set on fire, and houses of certain unpopular chiefs also got burned in the rural areas. Normal governance broke down; and the situation went out of control. A state of emergency was declared, and both the Bataka Party and Farmers Union were banned.
    Formation of UNC:
    Following the ban of Uganda African Farmers Union in 1949, Musazi next organized the Federation of Partnerships of Uganda African Farmers (F.P.U.A.F.) in 1950. (Apter, D.E. 1961: 310-313) The "partners" registered at the Registry of Companies and Business Names were twenty men described as farmers. These included I.K. Musazi, Peter Sonko, George Lwanga, Erieza Bwete and others who had been prominent in the 1949 riots, Bataka Party or UAFU. The Federation had links with Fenner Brockaway, the British Labor Party liberal M.P. and enjoyed the warm support of the Congress of the Peoples Against Imperialism. Unlike its predecessor, the UAFU, which was virtually limited to Buganda, the Federation was spread in most parts of eastern and northern Uganda. The Federation received immense technical assistance from foreign co-operators, and volunteers suggested by Brockaway were active in Uganda working for F.P.U.A.F. (Apter, D.E. 1961: 311) Among such volunteers was an American, Dr. George Shepherd who Musazi had met in London. Dr. Shepherd was an idealist whose strong sympathy with the poor and oppressed had been shaped when, as a young boy, he lived with his missionary parents in China. (Stonehouse, J. 1960: 48) The arrival of Dr. Shepherd in Uganda in 1951 injected into the Federation very crucial elements in its management and eventual transformation into a political organization, the Uganda National Congress, the following year. Not only did he bring in badly needed management skills, he brought in political insight as well. There is evidence that he was a key catalyst in getting Musazi launch the Uganda National Congress (UNC). Dr. Shepherd himself was to write: "I soon decided that it was important, both for the welfare of the people of Uganda and the co-operative movement that a political party be launched. This would take the pressure off the Federation of Farmers to be a political unit itself. And it would bring into the field an organization that would openly deal in the political issues, which after all were the decisive ones."(Shepherd, G.W. 1955: 94)
    The other source of the germ of the formation of UNC was a group of radical political activists who discussed the idea of the formation of an anti-colonial movement with Musazi in London. One of these radicals, Fenner Brockway was to write: "It is quite possible of course that Musazi thought of establishing Congress after the riots of 1949, but I don't think it took a very concrete form in his mind before the discussion which we had in London. I would not claim to be the author of the idea but certainly it was discussed by George Padmore, Dr. Leon Szur and myself. We urged Musazi strongly to establish a movement of this character and Dr. Szur particularly was responsible for insisting that it should be of an inter-racial nature. For this reason it was called the Uganda National Congress rather than Uganda African Congress. In practice, I don't think Indians or Europeans have joined but Musazi agreed that membership should not be limited to Africans in the hope of bringing in sympathizers of other races."(Ascherson, N. 1956:8)
    In the absence of sizable participation of the Asians and Europeans, the anti-colonial movement led by Musazi consisted of essentially two tendencies: the ambivalent nationalism typified and led by Musazi, and the true (Kohn,H. 1964: 64) nationalism yet unorganized and leaderless. In his endeavors to constitute a political organization, due to his ambivalence, Musazi first approached a respected Muganda chief whom he thought had the appropriate stature and qualities to lead the movement. (Shepherd, G.W. 1955: 168-170) When this chief refused, and not discouraged from his search for an appropriate Muganda of stature to provide leadership, Musazi next approached Kabaka Mutesa (sic) himself, who also turned him down. Reluctance to participate in a nation-wide anti-colonial movement did not limit itself to the leadership of Buganda -- it pervaded the Ganda masses as a whole. Not only were the Baganda believing their interests were being catered for within the 1900 Agreement, but given the feudal character of their society, all political leadership, thought and organization was taken to repose in the Kabaka. There was no way a true national movement (9) would make headway in the Buganda of those days. George Shepherd did observe: "The Uganda National Congress might have died at birth if it had not been for the interest which was shown in it by several leaders from tribes other than Buganda."(Shepherd, G.W. 1955: 169-170) And so it was from leading chiefs and elders of Lango, Teso and Toro that Musazi found enthusiastic support for the formation of an anti-colonial movement, the UNC, launched on March 2, 1952.
    1953 Buganda crisis:
    The following year Buganda became engulfed in a major political crisis which was to have far-reaching effects on the politics of both Buganda and Uganda. By 1953, the decolonization process which had began with India in 1947 was fast catching-up in Uganda. Yet much as the British desired Uganda to become independent as one country, as early as 1949 it had become clear that Buganda was set on a course of separating from the rest of Uganda. (Apter, D.E. 1961: 261;) And so, to proceed with the decolonization of Uganda, the British found it necessary to reverse the separatist tendencies of Buganda. To oversee this reversal, Sir Andrew Cohen was appointed Governor of Uganda. As head of the Africa Division in the Colonial Office, Sir Andrew had presided over the rapid political advance of the colonies in West Africa and was responsible for the relative democratization in other colonies. He arrived in Uganda as Governor in January 1952, and, after an intensive familiarization with the situation, took steps to weaken the forces leading Buganda to the path of separatism.
    In March 1953, together with the Kabaka of Buganda, Mutesa II, Sir Andrew issued a joint memorandum on constitutional development and reform in Buganda. Among other reforms, two political changes were announced: 60 of the 89 Lukiiko (Buganda Parliament) members were to be elected, and the Kabaka agreed to consult a Lukiiko Committee before selecting his ministers.(Low, D.A. & Pratt, R.C. 1960: 317-349; Low, D.A. 1971: 106) These two reforms were bound to dramatically democratize politics in Buganda, and therefore greatly weaken the entrenched position of the neo-traditionalists who were holding the reigns of power. The doors to office and responsibility were also being opened to those elements in Buganda who were opposed to both British colonial rule and the neo-traditional chiefs and ministers, in one word the Uganda nationalists from Buganda. The other intended effect - and perhaps the most significant - was to begin the process of facilitating the atrophy of the Kabaka and other tribal institutions.
    The bait launched by Sir Andrew seemed well swallowed by both the Kabaka and the Lukiiko until everything was thrown overboard by a speech made in Nairobi by Oliver Lyttleton (later Lord Chandos), the Colonial Secretary on 30th June, 1953. The speech alluded to the possibility "as time goes on of still larger measures of unification and federation of the whole of East African territories."(Low, D.A. & Pratt, R.C. 1960: 323) Reacting to the speech, the Kabaka wrote to the Governor that "the statement of the Secretary of State for the colonies is bound not only to shake the foundations of trust amongst our people but will badly damage the good relations which hitherto exists between Buganda and the British."(Low, D.A. & Pratt, R.C. 1960: 324) To this, the colonial authorities responded with assurances which the Kabaka dismissed as far weaker than previous ones. The Kabaka also made two demands: (a) that the affairs of Buganda be transferred from the colonial office to the foreign office; and (b) that a timetable for Buganda's (not Uganda's) independence be prepared. Clearly these two demands were intended to begin the process of detaching Buganda from the rest of Uganda. As the Kabaka was to argue, "the policy of developing a unified system of government along parliamentary lines must inevitably result in Buganda becoming less and less important in the future." (Low, D.A. & Pratt, R.C 1960: 325) There was no way the British were going to accept the dismemberment of the colony. After long and patient-wearing negotiations intended to persuade the Kabaka to drop the demands, the Governor presented the Kabaka three conditions upon which cooperation with the British was to be based. When the Kabaka rejected these conditions, the Governor withdrew British recognition from Mutesa as provided for in the 1900 Agreement and deported him to Britain. The Baganda got thunderstruck by the news of the deportation, and a profound sense of pain and shock overwhelmed the kingdom. The Kabaka's sister collapsed and died on hearing the news, and her funeral was a peculiarly tense moment. All this was because, to the Baganda of those days, the Kabaka was the visible link between them and the cosmos. He played the role of a major psychological pillar of support. A move that undermined his authority was damning.
    At the political level, the intrusion by the British - foreigners to boot - in a matter so intimate to the Ganda polity offended the Baganda as a whole, including those who had lost confidence in Mutesa during the 1949 riots. In fact, almost instantly, the deportation transformed Mutesa's image from that of the playboy of the 1940s into a hero. Beyond interference, the Baganda also felt a sense of pique. Before the deportation, the Baganda had believed that, unlike other nationalities in the rest of Uganda, they had never been conquered, that the British overrule over them was by invitation and for protection and education. They had therefore assumed the British could not deal with them summarily the way they did with other nationalities. The deportation dealt a serious blow to this illusion. It also bruised and challenged the pride and self-esteem of the Baganda as a collective. Even those who were nationalistic in outlook and those who had favoured the democratization of the powers exercised by the Kabaka, got enraged by the deportation. As Professor Pratt was to observe: "The rights and wrongs of the Governor's attitude counted less in their judgment than the seemingly arbitrary, abrupt and humiliating fashion with which the British dealt with . . ." the Kabaka. (Low, D.A. & Pratt, R.C. 1960: 334-335)
    Following the deportation, the British initially prosecuted a strategy to have Mutesa replaced as Kabaka. Some efforts were made to persuade Mutesa to renounce his rights to the throne, and to get him to agree not to return to Uganda without the consent of the British government. When Mutesa could not acquiesce, the colonial authorities found themselves in a legal bind.(Low & Pratt 1960:333) The constitutional basis upon which the Governor could act in a crisis such as the one then raging was either Article 6 or Article 20 of the 1990 agreement. Article 20 provided that "should the Kabaka chiefs or people of Uganda (meaning Buganda) pursue, at any time, a policy which is distinctly disloyal to the British Protectorate; Her Majesty's Government will no longer consider themselves bound by the terms of this Agreement."(Kiwanuka, M.S.M. 1971: 299; Low, D.A. & Pratt, R.C. 1960: 362) In Article 6 the British Government pledged to recognize the Kabaka as the native ruler of Buganda as long as the Kabaka, chiefs and people of Buganda conformed to laws and rules instituted by the British Government. However, as the colonial authorities were eager to preserve the legal basis of the rest of the Buganda government, they stopped short of invoking these provisions.
    Unable to replace Mutesa, the colonial authorities then resorted to negotiations. Addressing the Lukiiko on 3rd March 1954, Governor Cohen put forward the view that "a representative group of Baganda, with such independent help as could be secured, should think through their own problems in preparation for some subsequent discussions which he was prepared to hold with them."(Low, D.A. 1971: 114; & 136 footnote 54; also The Times 4 March, 1954) By independent help Cohen meant expert assistance in the form of an academic. This role fell upon Professor Keith Hancock, then Director of the Institute of Commonwealth Studies at the University of London. Hancock left London for Uganda on 21st June 1954, taking with him an assistant and a secretary. In Uganda he pitched camp at Namirembe Hill, the Anglican Church headquarters, rather than government premises. The Buganda committee that was selected to do business with Hancock "was not typical of the membership of the Lukiiko; and the absence from it of Amos Sempa, the exceptionally adroit Secretary of the Lukiiko was an indication that it had been formed with a view to its being easily repudiated if necessary."(Low, D.A. 1971: 118)
    At the first meeting of the committee, Hancock was unanimously elected chairman. During the sessions that followed, the committee got polarized over the issue of what came to be known as a federal "fence" for Buganda. A number of committee members sought Buganda to be regarded as an entity separate and distinct from the rest of Uganda, something which Hancock did not quite accept. For many members of the Committee, Bishop Kiwanuka hit the nail on the head when he argued that the major problem

  • Question: a) Has Africa’s independence changed the world?
    b) Explain the concept of people’s revolution in
    Africa politics. Illustrate your explanation with
    examples you are familiar with.

    By Herbert Mwesigye (MALHS) MUK
    Title page

    Has Africa’s independence changed the world?


    Not everything
    that is faced can be changed, but nothing can be changed until it is faced.
    James Baldwin

    Table of contents
    Title page……………………………………………………………………………………. ii
    Quote …………………………………….……………………………………..………….. iii
    Table of contents ……………………………………………………………………….. iv

    Introduction………………………………………..……..……………………………………….. 1
    1.1 Background information on Africa………………………….……………….……..2
    1.2 Africa before independence and the forces of
    imperialism and colonialism……………..………………………………………….3

    1.3 Africa’s Independence………………………………………………………………….6
    1.3.1 Routes to independence in Africa………………………………….……..6
    1.3.2 Post-colonial Africa……………….…………………………………..8
    1.4 Now, has Africa’s independence changed the world?.........................11
    1.4.1 African heritage and its leadership…………………………….…………11
    1.4.2 African brains for the World…………………….………………………….14
    1.5 Africa’s independence did not change the world…….……………………….16
    1.5.1 Military takeovers and decline of African states
    after independence……………………………………………..…………….16
    1.5.2 From trade dependence to aid dependence………………………….18
    Part two
    2.1 Meaning of the concept People’s revolution…………………………………..20
    2.2 France in North Africa………………………………………………..……………….21
    2.3 Independence South of the Sahara……………………………………………..23
    2.4 South Africa and Apartheid, to 1963…………………….……………………..34
    2.5 Concerted efforts by African Governments……………….………………….38



    This paper is presented by our group in an attempt to answer the question, “Has Africa’s independence changed the world? Explain the concept of people’s revolution in Africa politics. Illustrate your explanation with examples you are familiar with”.

    The paper has two parts; Part one has the background information on what the location and size of Africa; the pre-colonial era, colonial and post colonial; goes deep into answering the first part of the question. Part two basically deals with the second part of the assignment in which we have tried to define the concept of people’s revolution and used various African examples to elucidate and give a clear understanding of the concept.

    Has Africa’s independence changed the world?
    1.1 Background information on Africa
    Africa is the world's second largest continent (figure 1) and second most populous after Asia, with a total surface area, including several surrounding islands of 30,313,000 square kilometres. It stretches from 40 degrees latitude in the north to 34 35' degrees south and has 54 independent countries - 48 mainland and 6 island states (figure 2) - with an estimated total population of over 800 million. It accounts for about one seventh of the world human population.

    Fig 1: World map showing Africa’s location (geographically)

    Throughout humanity's prehistory, Africa (like all other continents) had no nation states, and was instead inhabited by groups of hunter-gatherers. Around 3300 B.C. the nation state of Egypt developed, which existed with various levels of influence until 343 B.C. Other civilizations include Ethiopia, the Nubian kingdom, the kingdoms of the Sahel (Ghana, Mali, and Songhai) and Great Zimbabwe.


    Fig 2: Political Map of Africa
    1.2 Africa before independence and the forces of imperialism and colonialism
    The term imperialism refers to a situation in which the ruling class of one country dominates the people and territory of another country. In other words, there is a situation of external domination by an outside power. This relationship assumes different forms in different contexts. African leaders were opposed to imperialism because of the suffering and oppression that it brought. They do not accept the argument that imperialism is a progressive force, whether this argument proceeds from the idea that imperialism “advances the productive forces”, “intervenes to keep the peace”, “civilises” etc. Needless to mention, imperialism is responsible for several vices in Africa like genocide, national oppression and attacks on working class conditions, war, underdevelopment, starvation, and poverty.

    The key imperialist powers are the dominant First World states and their ruling classes: Western Europe, the United States of America, Japan etc. These are commonly called the First World, or the West, or the “core” or the metropolitan countries. In addition to these countries, the main Eastern bloc countries such as Russia and China have also acted as imperialist powers. The other side of the coin are the countries and regions dominated by imperialism: Africa, East Europe, South Asia, the Caribbean, the Middle East and Latin America. These countries are often called the Third World, the South or the “periphery”, the “satellite” countries or “colonial and semi-colonial-regions” or developing countries.

    On the other hand colonialism had a destabilizing effect on what had been a number of ethnic groups that is still being felt in African politics. Prior to European influence, national borders were not much of a concern, with Africans generally following the practice of other areas of the world, such as the Arabian peninsula, where a group's territory was congruent with its military or trade influence. The European insistence of drawing borders around territories to isolate them from those of other colonial powers often had the effect of separating otherwise adjacent political groups, or forcing traditional enemies to live side by side with no buffer between them. For example, the Congo River, although it appears to be a natural geographic boundary, had groups that otherwise shared a language, culture or other similarity who resided on both sides. The division of the land between Belgium and France along the river isolated these groups from each other. Those who lived in Saharan or Sub-Saharan Africa who had traded across the continent for centuries, often found themselves crossing "borders" that often existed only on European maps.
    “In nations that had substantial European populations, for example Rhodesia and South Africa, systems of second-class citizenship were often set up in order to give Europeans political power far in excess of their numbers”, (http://en.wikipedia.org/). However, the lines were not often drawn strictly across racial lines. In Liberia, the citizens who were descendants of American slaves managed to have a political system for over 100 years that gave ex-slaves and natives to the area roughly equal legislative power despite the fact the ex-slaves were outnumbered ten to one in the general population. The inspiration for this system was the United States Senate, which ironically balanced the power of free and slave states despite the much larger population of the former.
    Europeans often changed the balance of power, created ethnic divides where they did not previously exist, and introduced a cultural dichotomy detrimental to the native inhabitants in the areas they controlled. For example, in what is now Rwanda and Burundi, two tribes Hutus and Tutsis had merged into one culture by the time Belgian colonists had taken control of the region in the 19th century. No longer divided by ethnicity as intermingling, inter-marriage, and merging of cultural practices over the centuries had long since erased visible signs of a culture divide, the Belgians instituted a policy of racial categorization, upon taking control of the region, as racial based categorization and philosophies was a fixture of the European culture of that time. The term Hutu originally referred to the agricultural-based Bantu speaking tribes that moved into present day Rwanda and Burundi from the West, and the term Tutsi referred to North Eastern cattle-based tribes that migrated into the region later. The terms to the indigenous peoples eventually came to describe a person's economic class. Those individuals who owned roughly 10 or more cattle were considered Tutsi, and those with fewer were considered Hutu, regardless of ancestral history. This was not a strict line but a general rule of thumb, and one could move from Hutu to Tutsi and vice versa.
    The Belgians introduced a racialised system. Those individuals who had characteristics the Europeans admired; fairer skin, ample height, narrow noses, etc; were given power amongst the colonized peoples. The Belgians determined these features were more ideally Hamitic, Hamitic in turn being more ideally European and belonged to those people closest to Tutsi in ancestry. They instituted a policy of issuing identity cards based on this philosophy. Those closest to this ideal were proclaimed Tutsi and those not were proclaimed Hutu. Figure 3 below is a map showing European claimants to the African continent at the beginning of World War I

    Figure 3: Partition of Africa and European claimants
    of African countries

    1.3 Africa’s Independence
    1.3.1 Routes to independence in Africa
    The first colonies to become independent were located in North Africa. They included Libya in 1949 (granted by the UN), Egypt and Sudan in 1952, Morocco and Tunisia in 1956, and Algeria in 1962. Only Algeria had a substantial European settler population, and only there did independence require a war.

    In West Africa, the situation to become independent states provided examples of one of the basic problems facing African independence leaders, which was what size should the independent African state, be? Should it be based on ethnic boundaries, geographic boundaries, colonial boundaries, territorial boundaries or a new relationship within the existing empire? The countries in East Africa fall into two categories: those that were British colonies and all of the rest. The British colonies form a coherent group because there were many plans to combine them into an East African Federation at independence.

    Independence in Southern Africa was substantially different from that of other region due to the presence of large white settler populations in Southern Rhodesia and South Africa, and the presence of enormous mineral wealth in the Katanga region of the Belgian Congo. Of all the areas in Africa that were under European rule, this was the area that Europeans wanted least to give up. Consequently, independence struggles were long, drawn-out affairs. For instance in the constitution of the 1946 Fourth Republic, Algeria was considered to be a department of France, with the same legal status as the Vaucluse or Upper Alsace, and not just a colony.

    Roughly one million people of French ancestry lived in Algeria, among a population of about ten million Arabs, Berbers, M'zabs, Khabylie, etc. The two groups were divided by land ownership, religion, legal system and language. Because France had envisioned Algeria as a permanent part of the French nation, they invested much more in education and infrastructure, and there was a higher percentage of westernized Algerian elites than in sub-Saharan French Africa. They embraced a range of opinions towards independence, with the majority favoring a peaceful route to independence.

    Meanwhile in Egypt (a modernized colony), Egyptian military officers who attended the military academy at Abbasieh, Egypt, in 1938 became co-conspirators at independence. One of them, Gamal Abdul Nasser, was posted to Khartoum in the Sudan in 1939-1942. At the time, Egyptian nationalists considered the Sudan to be a part of "Greater Egypt" while most collaborating Egyptians viewed the Sudan as a desolate place where one was transferred as punishment (the prime posts were located in Alexandria and Cairo).

    On 22 March 1945, only two weeks after World War II ended in Europe, Egypt joined the Arab League to foster pan-Arab ties and end European colonial domination. The Arab League had British support, at least at first, because it represented a movement towards independence by "known quantities" that was preferable (to the British) to the unknown quantities of Marxism and Muslim fundamentalism.

    Nasser continued to promote Arab independence and in 1958, Nasser formed the United Arab Republic of Egypt, Yemen and Syria. That lasted until 1961, when the Baath Revolution in Syria led to Syria's withdrawal. Thus the Egyptian experience extended African influence as a continent to the Arab world. The continued riots and resistance to British rule became examples to other peoples to emulate and reject foreign domination.
    1.3.2 Post-colonial Africa
    Since independence, African states have frequently been hampered by instability, corruption, violence, and authoritarianism. The vast majority of African nations are republics that operate under some form of the presidential system of rule. Few nations in Africa have been able to sustain democratic governments, instead cycling through a series of brutal coups and military dictatorships. A number of Africa's post-colonial political leaders were poorly educated and ignorant on matters of governance; great instability, however, was mainly the result of marginalization of other ethnic groups and graft under these leaders.
    As well, many used the positions of power to ignite ethnic conflicts which had been exacerbated, or even created, under colonial rule. In many countries, the military was perceived as being the only group that could effectively maintain order and ruled most nations in Africa during the 70s and early 80s. During the period from the early 1960s to the late 1980s Africa had over 70 coups and 13 presidential assassinations.
    Cold War conflicts between the United States and the Soviet Union also played a role in the instability. When a country became independent for the first time, it was often expected to align with one of the two super powers. Many countries in Northern Africa received Soviet military aid, while many in Central and Southern Africa were supported by the United States and/or France. The 1970s saw an escalation as newly independent Angola and Mozambique aligned themselves with the Soviet Union and the West and South Africa sought to contain Soviet influence.
    Most western countries place limitations on aid to African nations. These limitations are often used to control the governments of these African nations; as a result, these nations are turning to non-traditional sources of financial aid. China has increasingly provided financial aid to Africa in order to secure contracts on natural resources. There usually is no political prescription.
    While quoting the Economist, Soe Christian (1992), writes that, “A fundamental shift in the way western aid donors treat Africa is in train… Five years ago, dictatorships proclaiming socialist theories and applying the centralist part of them, prevailed in Africa, while donors pumped out conscience-salving loans without bothering too much what happened to the money. Africans have shown that they want multiparty democracy and are beginning to achieve it. Many African governments have decided that free-market policies are their most likely salvation and western donors are demanding open politics and open markets in return for continued aid”. On the other hand Yash Tandon (1995) writes emphatically explains Africa’s demise;

    Colonial governance was for colonial benefit. What about the post-independence governance? The facts are clear and well documented, it is the question of responsibility that raises problems and a debate. The facts are that the common people of Africa have not benefited from post-independence governance. If anything, they are materially and physically worse off than before. The facts are that famine and civil strife are daily taking a massive toll of African lives, especially of children and their mothers. The facts are that the external debt of sub-Saharan Africa is roughly equal to their entire combined national incomes, and that, together, they use up 40% of the total value of their exports just to service these debts. The facts are that 90% of these debts should not be paid in any case, for many of them are either fraudulent (in the technical, legal, sense of the term) or are accumulated interest. The facts are that the commodity prices of Africa's exports have tumbled over the decades, and African peasants are working three to four times harder today than two decades ago just to receive the same quantum of value, of which then 40% goes to service the debts. The facts are that when the World Bank's total lending to sub-Saharan Africa had reached the US$ 2 billion mark in 1988, Africa's hard currency debt had already risen to US$ 200 billion. The facts are that Africa's commodities are undervalued, African peasants over-exploited, and African governments are trapped in a vicious circle out of which, as individual members of government, they can escape only through graft and kickbacks from transnationals who win tenders for projects which do not benefit the masses of the people. And finally, and not the least, the facts are that the Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs) that have been going on in most of Africa over the last decade or more have worsened, not bettered, the condition of the common people of Africa in terms of health, access to education, and access to basic means of survival.

    Given the above narration about Africa from its prehistoric period to post colonial times, we will try to answer this question from two fronts. The first is that YES Africa’s independence changed the world as follows.
    1.4.1 African heritage and its leadership
    Africa has a rich heritage of leadership, but it is not uniform. Among African cultures, there are some similarities, but there are also differences from time to time, from place to place, from people to people. “At the time of independence there was a lot of discussion about charismatic leadership. This discourse was greatly influenced by the man who led the first Black African country to independence - Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana. He himself was a charismatic leader with considerable personal magnetism” affirms Prof. Ali Mazrui (http://igcs.binghamton.educ/igcs).
    Julius K. Nyerere in Tanzania was both charismatic and mobilizational. He succeeded in arousing the masses to many of his causes. Gamal Abdel Nasser in Egypt was also both charismatic and mobilizational from the Suez crisis in 1956 until his death in 1970.

    Julius Nyerere
    President of Tanzania
    Shown here with officials from the People's Republic of China, laying the foundation stone of the new Chinese-Tanzanian Friendship Textile Mill in 1966.

    A reconciliation leader seeks areas of compromise and consensus from among disparate points of views. Both General Yakubu Gowon (who led the Federal side during the civil war) and General Abdulsalami Abubakar (who provided a transition between tyranny and redemocratization) were reconciliation leaders. They attempted to find areas of compromise in widely divergent Nigerian points of view.

    A patriarchal system is one in which a father figure emerges, using the symbolism of the elder and the patriarch. Jomo Kenyatta was already about sixty years old when he emerged from a colonial prison in Kenya to assume the reins of power. He carried the title of Mzee, meaning both "the Elder" and "the Old Man". He ruled Kenya from 1963 until he died in 1978. Félix Houphouët-Boigny of the Côte d'Ivoire was also a patriarchal leader who presided over the destiny of independent Côte d'Ivoire from 1960 until his death in 1993.

    Nelson Mandela has been both a reconciliation leader and a patriarchal figure. His long martyrdom in prison (1964-1990) and his advancing years gave him the credentials of the patriarch. His moral style in his old age was a search for legitimate compromises. The latter was a style of reconciliation. Ibrahim Babangida played a patriarchal role in his transition program.

    Africa has really produced technocratic political leadership. Some vice-presidents have been technocrats or potential technocrats. Kenya has had a series of technocratic vice-presidents, who included Vice-Presidents Mwai Kibaki (distinguished economist and now current president), Josephat Karanja (former University Vice-Chancellor) and George Saitoti (former professor), Thabo Mbeki and Yoweri Museveni.

    More literally Jean-Bedel Bokassa of the Central African Republic tried to create a new monarchical and imperial dynasty, with himself as the first Emperor. He even renamed his country "the Central African Empire". He held an astonishingly lavish coronation that was supposed to be paradoxically Napoleonic. A new aspect of the monarchical tendency which is emerging is the dynastic trend in succession. Laurent Kabila in the Democratic Republic of the Congo has been succeeded by his son Josef Kabila. In Zanzibar Abeid Karume has produced a successor in his son. In Egypt Husni Mubarak may be grooming his son to succeed him. In Kenya Raila Odinga is trying to follow the nyayo (footprints) of his famous father, Oginga Odinga.

    “The modernized version of the Western tradition also popularized the use of honorary doctorates as regular titles of Heads of State. Thus the president of Uganda became "Dr. Milton Obote", the president of Zambia became "Dr. Kenneth Kaunda" - just as the president of Ghana before them had become "Dr. Kwame Nkrumah". These had been conferred as honorary doctorates, but they became regular titles used in referring to these heads of state. The sage tradition was attempting to realize itself in a modern veneer”, Mazrui Ali.

    South Africa has the most liberal constitution in the world, and has ended political apartheid. Leaders like Nelson Mandela and Thabo Mbeki have presided over substantial political democratization, but they have also had to tolerate substantial economic injustice as they struggled to liberate their countries from apartheid.

    1.4.2 African brains for the World
    Africa’s independence has also witnessed the rise of Africans to positions of leadership in global organizations. Boutros Boutros-Ghali , the first African Secretary General of the United Nations, was an African of the soil. Kofi Annan, the second African Secretary General is an African of the blood. North Africans like Boutros-Ghali belong to the African continent (the soil) but not to the Black race (the blood). On the other hand, African Americans are Africans of the blood (the Black race) but not of the soil (the African continent). Sub-Saharan Africans like Kofi Annan are in reality both Africans of the soil (the continent) and of the blood (the race). Globalization has given Africans of the soil and of the blood new opportunities for leadership at the global level itself.
    Even before the two African Secretaries-General of the United Nations, Africa had already produced a black Director-General for UNESCO in Paris (the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization). He was Amadou Mahtar M'Bow, an African of the blood from Senegal. His openly pro-Third World policies infuriated the United States, which finally withdrew from UNESCO in 1985 followed by its compliant ally, the United Kingdom. UK returned to UNESCO in 1997 after the sweeping victory of the Labour Party in the 1996 elections.

    With regard to the United Nations itself, Africa is the only region of the world apart from Europe to have produced more than one Secretary-General for the world body in the twentieth century. Europe has produced three Secretaries-General, Africa two, and the other regions of the world have produced either one each or none so far, which clearly puts us at position better than some of the continents.

    The International Court of Justice at the Hague elected in 1994 an African of the soil for its President - Mohammed Bedjauni of Algeria. The World Bank since the 1990s has had two African Vice-Presidents - Callisto Madivo, an African of the blood from Zimbabwe, and Ismail Serageldin, an African of the soil from Egypt. In 1999, Serageldin was also a serious candidate to become the first UNESCO Director-General of the new millennium. The Commonwealth (what used to be called the British Commonwealth) has fifty-four members. Its Secretariat is at Marlborough House in London. Throughout the 1990s the Commonwealth had Chief Eleazar Emeka Anyouku as its Secretary-General. The Chief is an African of the blood from Nigeria. The largest member of the Commonwealth in population is India; the most industrialized include Canada, Great Britain and Australia; and the largest black member of the Commonwealth is of course Nigeria.

    Africa’s independence has also permitted the emergence of Black and African moral leadership on a world scale. It began with the Nobel Prize winners for peace. Over the years these have included Ralph Bunche (1950), Albert Luthuli (1960), Martin Luther King, Jr. (1964), Anwar Sadat (1978), Desmond Tutu (1984), Nelson Mandela (1994), and F.W. de Klerk (1994). Ralph Bunche and Martin Luther King, Jr. were of course African Americans and therefore Africans of the blood in our sense, but not of the soil. Anwar Sadat and F.W. de Klerk were Africans of the soil but not of the blood. Albert Luthuli, Desmond Tutu and Nelson Mandela were Africans of both the soil and the blood. All three were South Africans, as was F.W. de Klerk. But we should note that F.W. de Klerk is an "African of the soil" by adoption rather than by indigenous roots to the continent.

    1.5 Africa’s independence did not change the world
    The Western world and its values have affected Africans deeply. Developed countries have always viewed our continent as a place plagued by corruption, dictatorship, military coups, rebellious leaders, greediness, misuse of power, incompetent leadership, politically as well as economically ineffective leaders who undermine their own democracies. Right now Zimbabwe is used as a classic case of this by the Western world. People are often not aware, though, that land is an important part of the problem. For example, 80 percent of Africans in South Africa used to live on 13 percent of the land. We also need to know that powerful or developed countries have contributed to this crisis. As a result, African leaders have often spent much of their time reacting to the Western world.
    1.5.1 Military takeovers and decline of African states after independence.

    It did not take long for the military in Africa to realize their power. Colonel Gamel Abdul Nasser had grabbed power away from king Faruk in Egypt in 1952. In 1963 the military took power in Togo. In Algeria, Ahmad Ben Bella's socialist schemes did not work well and created discontent, and in 1965 Algeria's leading military man, Houari Boumedienne, took power, Ben Bella returning to the imprisonment he had suffered under the French. In November 1965 in the Congo, the army, led by Mobutu, overthrew the Congo's president, Joseph Kasavubu, which started Mobutu on more than thirty years of corrupt rule. In January 1966, the military in the Central Africa Republic overthrew civilian rule. Three days later in Upper Volta the military took power. That same month the military took power in Nigeria. The coup in Nigeria encouraged many in Ghana who wanted Nkrumah out of office, and a month after the Nigerian coup the military in Ghana overthrew Nkrumah, with much rejoicing among the people of Ghana. In 1967 the military came to power in Sierra Leone. In 1969 Colonel Muammar Kadafi overthrew the monarchy in Libya, and, that year, army officers took power in Somalia and in 1971, Amin Dada overthrew Milton Obote in Uganda.

    The past has affected the continent in such a way that many of our best minds left the continent in search of greener pastures. We are still experiencing this brain drain. We cannot escape the legacy of the old colonialism. We are now faced with the challenge of nurturing and shaping new models of leadership. Our heritage is important as we develop new concepts of African leadership.
    The World Bank report (2000), clearly stated that, “At the start of the 19th century, Africa’s income level stood at roughly one-third of Europe's. There then followed a long period of falling behind as industrialization, technology, and trade accelerated in the world's major centres. African growth may have approximated that in Europe in the first half of the 20th century, and many countries performed well until the oil shock in 1973. But thereafter, Africa again fell behind, with most countries experiencing a steep economic decline that ended only with the recovery of the late 1990s”.

    Africa's decline was not expected. During the decade that followed the independence of most African countries, Africa was poised to grow steadily along a path of relative prosperity. Indeed, in the 1960s many African countries were richer than their Asian counterparts, and their strong natural resource bases augured well for future trade, growth, and development.

    In 1965, for example, incomes and exports per capita were higher in Ghana than in Korea. But projections proved to be far off the mark. Korea's exports per capita overtook Ghana's in 1972, and its income level surpassed Ghana's four years later. Between 1965 and 1995 Korea's exports increased by 400 times in current dollars. Meanwhile, Ghana's increased only by 4 times, and real earnings per capita fell to a fraction of their earlier value.

    1.5.2 From trade dependence to aid dependence
    The question now is, has Africa's low growth been due to a shortage of resources or to ineffective use? It can be argued that it is both. African investment rates, at about 18 percent of GDP, have been only slightly lower than those in East Asia and Latin America (22 percent). But when investment is measured in international prices that allow for Africa's higher costs, investment rates are a third lower in Africa than in other regions. African countries were specialized in primary products and have missed out on industrial expansion since the 1960s and now Africa risks being excluded from the global information revolution. Most African countries became independent from the period 1960 to the early 80s. Therefore, as the WB writes, we observe that Africa has had little influence over the world.

    Part of the reason for slow growth, then, is the fact that investment tends to be more costly in Africa than in other regions. For example, trucks in Southern and East Africa cost about twice as much as in Asia. These higher costs reflect outside factors as well as taxes and other policies. But productivity differences also loom large in accounting for Africa's slow growth.

    One can go on documenting these hard realities of post-independence Africa but it is not necessary. “It is governance on behalf of a couple of hundred industrial and banking transnationals who are draining Africa's natural resources at enormous profit for themselves, a couple of thousand African billionaires who have tucked away their ill-gotten gains in Western banks, a couple of million white settlers who still own farmlands, mines and tourist resorts in Africa, and a couple of million black intermediaries who are acting on behalf of their foreign companies. That's the rough arithmetic of those who benefit from the rich resources of Africa. Excluding the transnationals, they constitute barely 0.5% of Africa's population. Along with the transnationals, they are in competition with one another over who receives how much of the African bonanza, but over and above their daily bickering, they are in league, not a conspiratorial league, but a league maintained by 'the invisible market', Yash Tandon (1995).

    Acccording to president Benjamini Mkapa of Tanzania, today, less than 1 per cent of Tanzanians living with HIV/AIDS have access to antiretroviral (ARV) treatment. Too many pregnant women still do not have access to prophylactic ARV treatment. In rich countries, HIV/AIDS related deaths have declined by 80 per cent due to ARV treatment, and mother-to-child viral transmission has declined from between 15 to 45 per cent down to less than 1 per cent. Our people should have an equal chance for this most basic human right – the right to life.

    Imbalances in investment and trade have to be addressed if people in developing countries are to benefit from independence in terms of economic growth, in terms of development, and in terms of employment creation. “In reality Africa’s share of world merchandise exports fell from 6.3 per cent in 1980 to 2.5 per cent in 2000 in value terms. While 70 per cent of developing country exports are now manufactured products, very few of them come from Africa. So how can our people get jobs? Where are the opportunities?” Meanwhile, the 2004 United Nations Economic Report on Africa, issued by the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, states that, “At the global level, priorities clearly lean away from Africa and developing regions: each year US$ 300 billion supports farmers in rich countries, while less than one-sixth of that amount flows to poor countries in the form of aid. In order to create a fair global trading system, developed nations should show greater commitment to working with African countries on the development agenda of the Doha Round.”

    b) Explain the concept of people’s revolution in Africa politics. Illustrate your explanation with examples you are familiar with.

    2.1 Meaning of the concept ‘People’s revolution’
    According to the Macmillan English dictionary, the word ‘revolution’ is defined (in the political sense) as, “a situation in which people completely change their government or political system, usually by force. In Africa there have been numerous revolutions especially those that were independence related. In the eyes of their colonial subjects, Britain and France had lost prestige during World War II, while the United States and the Soviet Union won recognition as the world's two biggest powers. Moreover, the Atlantic Charter created by Roosevelt and Churchill in 1941 had stated that their principle in fighting World War II was to "respect the right of all peoples to choose the form of government under which they will live." Many colonized people, especially the educated African, wondered why this should not apply to them, and they wanted that freedom.
    During the war, Africa benefited from demand in Europe for its exports. By the end of World War II, Africa had experienced considerable economic growth and social change. In greater numbers people were moving to cities. After the war came a temporary setback as the demand for African goods diminished. But by the 1950s prosperity was returning, and Africans were exporting more than ever before. They were building roads and harbors and dredging rivers. They were building more extensive rail and telegraphic networks. In 1951, Cocoa exports from Britain's Gold Coast colony rose to 230,000 tons, up from about 1,000 tons in 1901. In 1954, Uganda exported 398,000 bales of cotton, up from 500 in 1906. Africans were participating in this economic growth, benefiting from it and they wanted to have a voice in maintaining and increasing their prosperity. African people had to revolt for their independence, freedom and development. Some of the major revolutions that Africans spearheaded in the struggle for independence were:
    2.2 France in North Africa
    In 1952, the French banned the leading independence movement, Néo-Destour in Tunisia. These were people largely from educated and business families who wished for little more than political independence. The French imprisoned the movement's leader, Habib Bourguiba, and the following year, 1953, in Morocco, the French moved against agitation for independence by deposing its leading advocate there, the Sultan of Morocco, Mohammad V.
    Instead of solving the issue for the French, repression made matters worse. In Tunisia, opposition to the French appeared in the form of guerrilla warfare, and during the next couple of years guerrillas in rural areas were winning support from peasants. The independence movement in Tunisia had not only turned violent, it was expanding and becoming more revolutionary. Under increasing pressure in Vietnam, the French could not afford more war, in either Tunisia or Morocco.
    In 1954 the French released Bourguiba from prison and lifted the ban on his political party. They offered amnesty to Tunisia's guerrillas, and in 1955 they gave Tunisia autonomy. The French were facing increasing difficulty in Algeria, and in Tunisia they faced a split between the faction under Bourguiba and a rival, more radical group. In 1956 the French helped the Bourguiba group by giving Tunisia complete independence. That year also, the French allowed Sultan Mohammad V to return to Morocco, and they gave Morocco complete independence.
    In Algeria, the French tried to hold on to their rule. Algeria was more than a colony, legally it was one of France's provinces. It had more people of European heritage than had Tunisia or Morocco, people whom some called settlers but who saw Algeria as their home. They were only a tenth of the population of Algeria but held power there, and they did not want to lose that power to the non-European, Moslem majority.
    Africans opposed to the European power began assassinating Europeans, and Europeans were assassinating Algerians. Those working for independence were making little gain through peaceful means, and in November 1954 guerrilla warfare erupted, directed by those who called themselves the National Liberation Front, which maintained its headquarters in Cairo, Egypt. By September 1955 the French had 120,000 troops in Algeria and by December 1956 that number had risen to 500,000.
    France's generals had not made a good showing against Germany in 1940. They had failed in Vietnam, and they were determined to succeed in Algeria. They insisted on a military solution to the conflict in Algeria. And, for the fight in Algeria, France began recruiting young men into the military - youth from families that had no special enthusiasm for France maintaining its rule in Algeria. The recruit and the war divided the French. Upset with politicians who appeared to be weakening their resolve to pursue a military solution to the conflict in Algeria, French generals in Algeria staged a coup - led by the paratrooper General Jacques Massu. And he considered a paratrooper against the government at Paris.
    With civil war pending, Charles de Gaulle came out of retirement, hoping as the grand man of France to stand above the conflicting sides and bring unity to the nation. France's National Assembly voted de Gaulle in as the nation's premier. The National Assembly wished to create a permanent change toward greater political stability in France, and it gave to de Gaulle stronger executive powers than previous premiers and six months with which to prepare a new constitution for the nation - a constitution that was to be ratified by popular referendum. The Fourth French Republic was dead. The Fifth Republic was in the making. The President of France would no longer be elected by the National Assembly. It would be elected by an electoral college consisting of 80,000 persons selected by local governments. And the National Assembly's previous power to close down a government would now be more restricted.
    De Gaulle, the wartime hero, hoped that his prestige would carry most of the nation with him toward a compromise solution in Algeria. In 1960, some generals in Algeria defied de Gaulle and tried another coup, which failed as rank and file military people remained loyal to de Gaulle's government. With France exhausted by its struggles against independence movements, de Gaulle's government began peace talks with the National Liberation Front in 1961, and on July 3, 1962, de Gaulle's government declared Algeria independent. Meanwhile, around 800,000 - an overwhelming majority - of those in Algeria of European descent had begun their return to Europe.
    2.3 Independence South of the Sahara
    The Gold Coast progressed gradually towards independence with a series of constitutional revisions that granted increasing local authority. The British claimed that this was done in recognition of the Ghanaians increasing ability to rule themselves, while Kwame Nkrumah (see photograph below) claimed that it was the result of increasing pressure brought to bear on the British by the Convention People's Party (CPP).

    Nkrumah went to London in 1945 and attended the 6th Pan-African Congress. There, he encountered the political themes that became the basis for his program: positive action, anti-communism, anti-imperialism, and non-alignment. Nkrumah went to the Gold Coast in 1948 in response to an invitation to become the Secretary-General of the United Gold Coast Convention (UGCC), an organization of wealthy lawyers and traders who abstained from the February 1948 riots. He left that group after it supported the British Coussey committee's recommendations for constitutional reform following the February 1948 riots, and began to seek support from the large number of poorer, but educated commoners, who were found mostly in the coastal cities.

    Kwame Nkrumah, leader of Ghana's fight for independence. He is shown here with members of his government. Under his leadership, literacy increased and many hospitals and schools were established.
    Source: The Warder Collection, NY

    On January 6, 1950, the Gold Coast Trade Unions Council declared a general strike. The government arrested all of the union and CPP leaders on January 21, 1950. The strike failed and Nkrumah served a year in jail, but the CPP dominated local elections two months later. The British assisted Nkrumah to run for colonial office while he was still in prison, and in the 1951 election, the CCP won a majority and formed a legislative council under the Coussey constitution. Nkrumah won almost all the votes in Accra Central.

    The CPP narrowly won the 1956 election. Less than a month later, the Legislative Assembly called for political independence. On March 4, 1957, Britain granted independence to the Gold Coast, following riots by groups opposed to the CPP. For the next year, the CPP passed laws that strengthened the state in order to suppress its political opposition. Ghana's independence, the first in sub-Saharan Africa, inspired Africans throughout the continent. Residents of western Togo, the former German colony (by then, a UN Mandate under French control) voted to join the Gold Coast in 1957. On March 13, 1966, Nkrumah was overthrown by an army coup.

    The Gold Coast was the first to win its independence, becoming an independent dominion in 1957. Britain had prepared the Gold Coast for independence, believing that independence was inevitable and seeing itself as living up to its duty and declared aim. The Gold Coast became Ghana, which emerged as a parliamentary democracy. Its leader was Nkrumah, who had personal ties with the British and kept some British around as advisors. Nkrumah wished to create a truly democratic state. In his speeches he was inclined to include references to such men as Edmund Burke and Aristotle. On the day of Ghana's independence crowds filled with joy cheered his speech and cheered him. Nkrumah was their hero.
    With Ghana having won its independence, other African nations increased their demand for independence, putting more pressure on France and Belgium as well as Britain. While the French were heavily committed to their war in Algeria, a Leftist in Guinea, Sekou Touré, led a movement that sought independence outside "the French Community," and with hostility, the French pulled out of Guinea, taking all they could with them, including the phones from the walls of their offices. And the French gave up rule elsewhere south of Morocco and Algeria. In 1960 the French granted complete independence to Senegal, Niger, Togo, Dahomey, Gabon, Chad, Mauritania, Mali (east and south of Mauritania), the Ivory Coast, Ubangi-Shari, which became the Central African Republic, and the area that includes the cities of Brazzaville and Pointe Noire which became the Congo Republic.
    In Ghana’s independence two striking influences emerged: African charismatic and educated leadership under Nkrumah who introduced new world thinking “non-alignment” that was later embraced by the developing countries of the world as far as India and was listened to by the commonwealth and the United Nations. The second major influence was in self-determination by many African and later other nations in the world to gain independence. The world had no choice but to listen.
    In 1960 the British granted full independence to Nigeria. In 1961, the British granted independence to Tanganyika, which the British had been ruling under a United Nations mandate. In 1962, the British gave Uganda its independence. That year, Belgium granted independence to Rwanda and Burundi, former German colonial territory that Belgium had been administering as trust territories - just west of Lake Victoria.
    The Belgian Congo
    Abruptly in 1960 the Belgians pulled out of the Congo. They had done little to prepare the Congo for independence, and the Congo erupted into factional fighting, with the southeastern part of the Congo, Katanga, attempting separation. In Katanga were the copper mines owned by Belgium's Union Minière. The mining company and Belgian troops were backing Katanga's independence and Maurice Tshombe. The duly elected prime minister of the newly independent Congo was Patrice Lumumba, who opposed Katanga's breaking away. Lumumba sought help from the United Nations. He had the support of other African leaders, including Kwame Nkrumah. The United Nations hesitated, leaving Lumumba frustrated. The United States offered no help. Lumumba sought the help offered from the Soviet Union. A CIA dispatch to Washington (18 august 1960) labeled Lumumba as "a commie playing the commie game." CIA chief, Lawrence Devlin, had close contacts with the Congolese commander Colonel Joseph Mobutu and the U.S. ambassador in the region, Clare Hayes Timerlake. Lumumba was taken prisoner by Mobuto's forces, degraded, beaten and murdered. And across Africa anti-American riots erupted.
    The British in Kenya
    Because of the greater number of white settlers in East Africa, working toward independence there was more difficult for the British. The whites were as opposed to handing a fair share of power to blacks and others as had been the whites in Algeria. In Kenya, frustration among the Kikuyu (about 20 percent of the population) had led to rebellion in 1951 - known as the Mau Mau uprising. The Kikuyu were unhappy about their lack of power, their having been driven off much of their land, unemployment and poverty in the city of Nairobi and other towns.

    The Mau Mau rebellion
    In June 1947, Jomo Kenyatta became President of Kenya African Union (KAU). As leader of KAU, he (between 1948-1951) embarked on a massive campaign to sensitize the Kenyan public on the need to get their land and demand independence from the British. Therefore, he was not solely concerned with the grievances of the Kikuyu. His immediate concern was to build up mass support for the aims of the new party: freedom of speech; universal franchise; equal rights with Europeans; to "defend" all Kenya Africans; and to "fight" for African education, labour, housing and freedom of the press. The Colonialists sensing Kenyatta's rising popularity, banned KAU, and this prompted the Mau Mau rebellion. On October 20th 1952, a state of emergency was declared and Kenyatta was arrested together with 182 other African leaders.
    It is important to realise from the start that the phenomenon of "Mau Mau" was restricted to one tribe, the Kikuyu, not surprisingly because they were the most seriously affected by colonisation among the various tribes in Kenya. They had most to complain about; but their many attempts to redress their grievances through the machinery of the colonial state had always failed. A typically European interpretation of "Mau Mau" - especially among the colonial government, the missionary leaders and the white settlers - was that it was a fanatical collective madness. Such people were convinced that Kenyatta was the mastermind of a secret tribal cult, led by unscrupulous extremists who stirred up the primitive masses to further their own ambitions. For LSB Leakey as cited by Wepman Dennis, (1985), "Mau Mau" had the evil power of "turning thousands of peacekeeping Kikuyu into murderous fanatics”.
    In reality, ‘Mau Mau’ was the logical outcome of years of mounting frustration and deterioration of life conditions. Allowed no outlet, these frustrations boiled over into the violence that was ‘Mau Mau’ - all European values were turned upside down, and the tribe found "its mystical unity in the re-formed figures of the past”, Malcolm Linfield (Internet Source) .


    Jomo Kenyatta's position in the movement is a very interesting one, because whether he liked it or not, he was the acclaimed leader of "Mau Mau." Oaths were administered in his name and he was claimed to possess divine powers. But he was elevated to this position by the militants who administered the oaths. In effect, he was the figurehead and not the real driving force behind the movement. Jomo Kenyatta was a name to be used because he was the most widely known and revered of the Kikuyu nationalists - he had shown his magnetism as a leader at the vast meetings he addressed, and he was surrounded by a spiritual sensation. So, with or without his approval, he was the "leader" of the Mau Mau rebellion.
    Even though Kenyatta must have condemned the violence of "Mau Mau" because it essentially involved the horrors of a Kikuyu civil war, he was still regarded as the spiritual leader of the movement. But there was no central direction of operations; "Mau Mau" became the rebellion of semi-educated or illiterate peasants who expressed their frustrations in almost indiscriminate violence. It was not so much directed against the European settlers than against Africans considered to be loyalist to the government. Of course, in a state of confusion and with no central leadership, it was only a matter of time before the might of the British Army defeated "Mau Mau." By 1956 the rebellion was over; more than 11,000 Kikuyu had been killed by the security forces, states Malcolm Linfield.
    The independence struggles in Uganda
    In 1949 discontented Baganda rioted and burned down the houses of pro-government chiefs. The rioters had three demands: the right to bypass government price controls on the export sales of cotton, the removal of the Asian monopoly over cotton ginning, and the right to have their own representatives in local government replace chiefs appointed by the British. They were critical as well of the young Kabaka, Frederick Walugembe Mutesa II, for his inattention to the needs of his people. The British governor, Sir John Hall, regarded the riots as the work of communist-inspired agitators and rejected the suggested reforms.
    Nevertheless, the Uganda African Farmers Union, founded by I.K. Musazi in 1947, was blamed for the riots and was banned by the British. Musazi's Uganda National Congress replaced the farmers union in 1952, but because the congress remained a casual discussion group more than an organized political party, it stagnated and came to an end just two years after its inception.
    Meanwhile, the British began to move ahead of the Ugandans in preparing for independence. The effects of Britain's postwar withdrawal from India, the march of nationalism in West Africa, and a more liberal philosophy in the Colonial Office geared toward future self-rule all began to be felt in Uganda. The embodiment of these issues arrived in 1952 in the person of a new and energetic reformist governor, Sir Andrew Cohen (formerly undersecretary for African affairs in the Colonial Office). Cohen set about preparing Uganda for independence. On the economic side, he removed obstacles to African cotton ginning, rescinded price discrimination against African-grown coffee, encouraged cooperatives, and established the Uganda Development Corporation to promote and finance new projects. On the political side, he reorganized the Legislative Council, which had consisted of an unrepresentative selection of interest groups heavily favoring the European community, to include African representatives elected from districts throughout Uganda. This system became a prototype for the future parliament.
    Power Politics in Buganda
    The prospect of elections caused a sudden proliferation of new political parties. This development alarmed the old-guard leaders within the Uganda kingdoms, because they realized that the center of power would be at the national level. The spark that ignited wider opposition to Governor Cohen's reforms was a 1953 speech in London in which the secretary of state for colonies referred to the possibility of a federation of the three East African territories (Kenya, Uganda, and Tanganyika), similar to that established in central Africa. Many Ugandans were aware of the Central African Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland (later Zimbabwe, Zambia, and Malawi) and its domination by white settler interests. Ugandans deeply feared the prospect of an East African federation dominated by the racist settlers of Kenya, which was then in the midst of the bitter Mau Mau uprising. They had vigorously resisted a similar suggestion by the 1930 Hilton Young Commission. Confidence in Cohen vanished just as the governor was preparing to urge Buganda to recognize that its special status would have to be sacrificed in the interests of a new and larger nation-state.
    Mutesa II, who had been regarded by his subjects as uninterested in their welfare, now refused to cooperate with Cohen's plan for an integrated Buganda. Instead, he demanded that Buganda be separated from the rest of the protectorate and transferred to Foreign Office jurisdiction. Cohen's response to this crisis was to deport the kabaka to a comfortable exile in London. His forced departure made the kabaka an instant martyr in the eyes of the Baganda, whose latent separatism and anticolonial sentiments set off a storm of protest. Cohen's action had backfired, and he could find no one among the Baganda prepared or able to mobilize support for his schemes. After two frustrating years of unrelenting Ganda hostility and obstruction, Cohen was forced to reinstate Kabaka Freddie.
    The negotiations leading to the kabaka's return had an outcome similar to the negotiations of Commissioner Johnston in 1900; although appearing to satisfy the British, they were a resounding victory for the Baganda. Cohen secured the kabaka's agreement not to oppose independence within the larger Uganda framework. Not only was the kabaka reinstated in return, but for the first time since 1889, the monarch was given the power to appoint and dismiss his chiefs (Buganda government officials) instead of acting as a mere figurehead while they conducted the affairs of government. The kabaka's new power was cloaked in the misleading claim that he would be only a "constitutional monarch," while in fact he was a leading player in deciding how Uganda would be governed. A new grouping of Baganda calling themselves "the King's Friends" rallied to the kabaka's defense. They were conservative, fiercely loyal to Buganda as a kingdom, and willing to entertain the prospect of participation in an independent Uganda only if it were headed by the kabaka. Baganda politicians who did not share this vision or who were opposed to the "King's Friends" found themselves branded as the "King's Enemies," which meant political and social ostracism.
    Elsewhere in Uganda, the emergence of the kabaka as a political force provoked immediate hostility. Political parties and local interest groups were riddled with divisions and rivalries, but they shared one concern: they were determined not to be dominated by Buganda. In 1960 a political organizer from Lango, Milton Obote, seized the initiative and formed a new party, the Uganda People's Congress (UPC), as a coalition of all those outside the Roman Catholic-dominated DP who opposed Buganda hegemony.
    The steps Cohen had initiated to bring about the independence of a unified Uganda state had led to a polarization between factions from Buganda and those opposed to its domination. Buganda's population in 1959 was 2 million, out of Uganda's total of 6 million. Even discounting the many non-Baganda resident in Buganda, there were at least 1 million people who owed allegiance to the kabaka--too many to be overlooked or shunted aside, but too few to dominate the country as a whole. At the London Conference of 1960, it was obvious that Buganda autonomy and a strong unitary government were incompatible, but no compromise emerged, and the decision on the form of government was postponed. The British announced that elections would be held in March 1961 for "responsible government," the next-to-last stage of preparation before the formal granting of independence. It was assumed that those winning the election would gain valuable experience in office, preparing them for the probable responsibility of governing after independence.
    Rhodesia had experienced impressive economic growth, the benefits of which were far from equally shared between Europeans and blacks - in 1961 the Europeans on average earning fifteen times that of blacks. In an effort to surrender more power to blacks and prevent more uprisings like that of the Mau Mau rebellion, Britain separated Southern Rhodesia from Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland. On July 6, 1964 Nyasaland became the independent state of Malawi, and on October 24 that same year, Northern Rhodesia became Zambia.
    Southern Rhodesia remained a British colony, 250,000 persons of European descent there holding power over 16 times their number: 4,000,000 blacks. Europeans continued calling it simply Rhodesia and in November 1965 the Europeans there, led by their prime minister, Ian Smith, unilaterally declared itself independent. - within the British Commonwealth of Nations.
    2.4 South Africa and Apartheid, to 1963
    As Africans were moving to self-rule elsewhere on the continent, whites in South Africa were determined that they were going to maintain their way of life, which to them meant maintaining power, in other words denying power to the majority Africans. The whites in South Africa - of British and Dutch descent - were roughly 20 percent of South Africa's population. Asians (mainly Indians) were roughly 2 percent. Blacks were about 70 percent, and those classified as coloreds (of mixed race) were about 8 percent. Many of the more conservative whites - largely farmers of Dutch descent, saw God as having given them their lands in South Africa, and they saw no reason to give up ruling themselves.
    White farmers had become dependent upon blacks as cheap labor, and manufacturers were also using blacks for cheap labor. South Africa had become urbanized, with 50 percent of the black population living in cities dominated by white governments, many of the blacks there working as semi-skilled labor in manufacturing, blacks operating machinery having replaced the white master-craftsmen of previous generations. The labor of black people had become a mainstay of South Africa's economy, but with wage discrimination. A law had been passed creating what was called a Civilized Labor Policy, which protected the wage levels of white workers and left employers free to hire blacks at wages as low as possible. There was the Bantu Act of 1953, which took schools away from missions and assured that whites would receive educations different from and superior to that of blacks.
    Comparison of wages for Blacks in relation to other races
    Mining, May 1983 Manufacturing, May 1983
    # Employed Av Monthly Wage # Employed Av Monthly Wage
    African 613,452 $260 748,700 $320
    White 78,020 $1,395 316,600 $1,290
    Colored 9,581 $430 240,800 $365
    Indian 659 $690 86,400 $460
    Source: www.mltranslations.org/SouthAfrica/SApamphl.htm

    The movement of blacks in the urban areas had exacerbated race relations, and in 1948 the most conservative of white political parties, the Nationalist Party, won the national election - elections in which only whites participated. The Nationalist Party was predominately rural and consisted largely of those of Dutch heritage, and it was the most adamant in maintaining a separation between whites and the other races in South Africa.
    They set out to more than maintain the separation of the races; they tried to turn back the clock and undo what appeared to them to be unacceptable integration. Blacks were working in white owned factories, other white businesses and in white homes, but they were largely segregated into black enclaves in the cities and had their own facilities and doors of entry to public places where they were allowed, and other restrictions that were common in the South in the United States. But still there was too much integration for the Nationalist Party.
    New laws restricted blacks living in cities. Blacks were forbidden to own their own homes in urban areas. They had to rent less than satisfactory housing from local administration boards. The old apartheid dogma that blacks were "temporary sojourners" in the cities was applied. Those who had worked for the same employer for ten years or for different employers for fifteen years were allowed to continue living in cities and towns, and all others were regarded as migrant workers who had to have special work permits, which were to be renewed every year. So called black spots in South Africa's cities were wiped out. This included neighborhoods where people of different races had been living beside one another peacefully, the black suburb called Sophiatown and the heart of the Colored community in Capetown (District Six).
    Blacks were now obliged to carry passbooks, open to inspection to any policeman or agent of the government whenever asked. Blacks had to acquire special permission for travel to various activities. Those no longer allowed in the cities, including the old and no longer useful, were to be forcibly removed to areas outside the cities designated as reserves for blacks - dusty places with abject poverty and far from what blacks considered home.
    Every square inch of South Africa was designated as belonging to a racial grouping, and blacks were removed from villages and lands where generations had lived and worked fields they believed they owned - to be replaced by whites. The response to the Nationalist Party's policies by blacks was increased agitation. An organization called the African National Congress turned to boycotts, strikes and civil disobedience. In the early fifties they began their Defiance Campaign, together with some of South African Indians. The government arrested 8,500, which outraged many more, and tens of thousands mobilized for defiance.

    Demonstrations by the blacks in S.Africa

    In 1956, the government indicted 156 opposition leaders, including Nelson Rolihiafia Mandela, leader of the African National Congress. The African Nation Congress issued what it called a Freedom Charter, asserting that South Africa belonged to all who lived in it, "black and white," and which called for universal suffrage and those individual freedoms found in the U.S. Bill of Rights. The British government was less than thrilled over the new repressions in South Africa, and a white majority approved a new constitution that in 1961 made South Africa a republic. South Africa's government



    There are many diverse definitions of leadership. Leadership refers to the activities of enabling a group to engage together in the process of developing, sharing and moving into vision, and then living it out. In leadership the emphasis is put on the importance of a leader's character and integrity in building up the trust necessary for the leadership to be exercised over a period of time. For Christian Leadership, the importance of prayer must be emphasized since God seeks to work in partnership with his people, and prayer is the primary channel of communication.

    Leadership is the ability to influence the thoughts and behaviour of others towards some goal. Leaders are people who do the right things as opposed to managers who are people who do things right (Bennis, 1984).
    Spirituality is defined as an altered state of consciousness where an individual may experience a higher sense of self, inner feelings, inner knowledge, awareness and attainment to the world and one's place in it, knowledge of personal relationships and the relationship to the environment, or a belief in a power greater than imaginable.

    Effective leadership is defined as the move of exerting influence, motivating and inspiring, helping others realize their potential, leading by example, selflessness and making a difference.
    Effective leaders recognize that what they know is very little in comparison to what they still need to learn. To be more proficient in pursuing and achieving objectives, you should be open to new ideas, insights, and revelations that can lead to better ways to accomplishing goals. This continuous learning process can be exercised, in particular, through engaging yourself in a constant dialogue with your peers, advisers, consultants, team members, suppliers, customers, and competitors.

    Many people have a general thinking that spirituality and political leadership are mutually exclusive. Most people think that you can be either a spiritual seeker or a political activist but never both. For those caught in dualistic, “either/or” thinking, leadership and spirituality seem worlds apart (two different arenas that should never be mixed or they produce deadly results) such as we see today with certain leaders trying to impose their religious beliefs on everyone else through public policies for example in Sudan where there have been some attempts to Islamize everybody.

    Mahatma Gandhi had no trouble bringing his spirituality and political leadership together. He said, “I could not lead a religious life unless I identified with the whole of humankind and that I could not do unless I took part in political leadership.”
    During his time, Gandhi emphasized the truth, purity, self-control, firmness, fearlessness, humility, unity, peace, and renunciation as the inherent qualities of an effective leader.

    In the widespread trend to bring qualities of spirituality into organizational leadership, an increasing number of Americans are working to make their companies reflect their values in how they relate to their employees, their community and the natural environment. They are promoting a triple bottom line people, planet, profit and making their companies more socially responsible. Many people are hungering for a deeper sense of meaning and purpose at work and want to apply their spiritual values in a practical way.
    Similarly, many citizens want their politics and government to reflect deeper, more universal spiritual values. They demand that politicians embody the values they espouse but without imposing these values on others. Bringing together spirituality and political leadership is a key idea whose time has come in fact, it is long overdue! But as the French say, Everything begins in mysticism and ends in politics!

    A spiritually based leadership recognizes that we humans do not have to struggle with our problems alone, as help is always available from higher dimensions when it is asked for. There are many examples of intervention by higher spiritual forces throughout history, such as the help received by the Allies during the Battle of Britain in World War II and Egyptian President Anwar Sadat’s vision of Mohammed inspiring him to create peace in the Middle East hence becoming an effective leader.
    Many groups, such as Pathways to Peace in Larkspur, CA and Re-Creation Foundation in Ashland, organize prayer vigils to ask for spiritual help in crisis situations. A major prayer vigil around the world in 1995 helped support the peace process in Bosnia at a crucial juncture. Another vigil in 1997 mobilized prayers to prevent war with Iraq over a U.N. weapons inspection. Pathways to Peace organizes a prayer for the United Nations every September on its opening day. In Uganda this has not been different as every beginning of a new year, prayers are organized in various places like Namboole Stadium and Lugogo Sports Ground to ask God to give guidance to our political leaders. President Yoweri Kaguta Museveni has of recent been an ardent participant.

    At The Center for Visionary Leadership, which founded several years ago in Washington, D.C., created a prayer to help heal the divisions that divide the people as a nation. People are also encouraged to “Adopt a Leader” find a national leader that needs help spiritually, but has a lot of potential, and follow his or her career, praying or meditating for him, and asking that he align with higher spiritual principles so he may serve the good of all.
    The Faith and Politics Institute in Washington D.C. provides reflection groups to support Congressmen and their staff in being true to their deepest values when confronting difficult issues such as campaign fundraising.
    Global Renaissance Alliance in Detroit, MI encourages citizens around the country to meet in small groups to help heal America by praying and studying together, as well as promoting appropriate legislation in Congress.
    The Foundation for Ethics and Meaning based in Tampa, FL supports grassroots groups around the country in undertaking projects to transcend our profit-obsessed culture, such as the General Ethical Measurement Standards to measure a business’ care of people, the environment and the community.

    Many spiritual people are recognizing how much our prayers, meditations and inner work are needed to help transform the world. The power of Spirit within us is a source of great strength and wisdom. Within each of us is a special gift that we can uniquely contribute to making a better world through spirituality. Hence leaders can be more effective change agents if they reunite politics and spirituality.
    A spiritually enlightened effective leader will demonstrate the many attributes and behaviours and values-based transformational attitudes.

    § To create a vision for the organization or group
    § To provide direction
    § To articulate goals in a way that is meaningful to people
    § To motivate good performance
    § To provide a role model/act as figurehead
    § Leadership is essentially about helping people to achieve a better life
    § Leaders have vision; they are not just for themselves, they set a common goal and give direction to their followers
    § People are most willing to follow those who know what they are doing
    § In difficult positions, leadership flows to the person who knows what to do in a given situation.

    o Forming a propound and compelling vision which provides people with a bridge to the future
    o Giving meaning to that vision through communication
    o Building trust, "the lubrication that makes it possible for organization to work"
    o Searching for self-knowledge and self-regard
    o Management of attention
    o Clarity of vision
    o Management of meaning
    o Good communicator
    o Management of trust
    o Constancy
    o Management of self
    o Knowledge of strengths and weaknesses
    o Emotional Competence
    o Technical and cognitive skills.

    The three aspects of an effective leader are:
    1.3 Experience
    Without entering into the intellectual arguments of experience and knowledge, whether metaphysical or epistemological (as talked about by the likes of Dewey, cited by Warren, Sakofs & Hunt), for the purpose of this article I simply define experience as the sum of the engagement an individual has with the outside world, in all it's forms.
    1.4 Hard Skills
    These are the technical knowledge and competencies needed to perform specific tasks. An example of this can be taken from John Adair and his model of action centred leadership (which uses the same graphical representation as the model being described) through to the ability to tie knots, facilitate a group etc.
    1.5 Spiritual Awareness
    This is an intangible aspect and as such is difficult to define, although many writers have tried. The following attempt by Rebecca Fox (in Miles and Priest 1999) comes some way to getting close,
    Spirituality is defined as an altered state of consciousness where an individual may experience a higher sense of self, inner feelings, inner knowledge, awareness and attainment to the world and one's place in it, knowledge of personal relationships and the relationship to the environment, or a belief in a power greater than imaginable.

    There are three main aspects that form the leadership triad and are developed equally in order to increase the central area, the area of ‘effective leadership’ (See Figure 1).

    Each ‘sphere’ of the triad can be developed independently, and almost infinitely, but it is the development of all spheres that will increase the effective leadership skills of an individual.

    In Figure 2 we can see what happens to the area of effective leadership when one of the spheres of the triad is developed independently of the others. Whilst that specific aspect is developed the effective leadership ability of the individual is not significantly increased, it is only when all arms of the triad are developed that this will happen. This does not have to happen all at the same time but equal consideration must be given to all aspects in order to develop an individual’s leadership ability. This model of leadership firmly stands in the ‘leaders are made and not born’ camp although it does recognize that certain individuals may be born with a natural aptitude for one or more of these leadership aspects and could then be perceived as a ‘natural’ leader, that is ‘born not made’.

    2.1 Spiritual Wisdom
    An important element for spiritual quality of effective leadership is wisdom. (Read Acts 6:3.) True wisdom is more than knowledge, basic accumulation of facts. It is heavenly insight.
    Spiritual wisdom restrains a leader from rash or eccentric action. It involves the right application of knowledge in moral and spiritual matters and in perplexing situations and complex human relationships.

    2.2 Commitment
    Commitment, absolute dedication to God’s work and cause, is an essential spiritual quality of effective leadership. As Leaders, St Paul exhorts us to stand firm, to let nothing move us, and to always give ourselves fully (1 Corinthians 15.58). In Luke 9:62 Jesus makes it clear that consistency and dependability are requirements for effective leadership.
    A committed spiritually effective leader should;
    1 Be consistent, dependable, faithful, and punctual;
    2 Communicate clearly and honestly regarding plans and expectations;
    3 Not become enthusiastic about a project then forget it or change directions suddenly without informing others
    4 Keep his word and adhere to the same regulations that have been set for others.

    2.3 Faith and Vision
    A spiritually guided leader must effectively communicate his faith and vision to those he leads. Faith, which is confidence, reliance, and trust, feeds on the Word of God.
    Faith is also a God-given vision, which must be communicated to others. "Where there is no vision, the people perish" (Proverbs 29:18).
    The spiritually guided leader, like Paul, must see opportunities where others see obstacles. The leader who sees obstacles and does not discern the possibilities will not inspire others. These possibilities must be translated into realistic goals. When you succeed, do not stop hence set higher goals .

    2.4 Empathy
    Empathy is essential spiritual quality to effective leadership. In 2 Timothy 2:24 Paul states, "And the servant of the Lord must not strive but be gentle unto all men, apt to teach, patient" The leader who possesses this quality will be thoughtful and sensitive to the rights, needs, and feelings of others.
    A spiritually led leader should have the ability to conduct delicate negotiations and personal matters in a way that recognizes mutual rights, yet leads to a harmonious solution. Conflict resolution or negotiation requires effective communication, and effective communication requires effective listening. When these procedures are utilized simultaneously, the harmonious resolution of problems is possible.

    As the leader of your organization you are a expected to be a person with a great mission. You have been placed in this position because you are believed to achieve the organizational goals with the followers. The versatility that characterized a spiritually effective leadership is demonstrated in the way leader solves problems of differing people. Wisdom, commitment, faith, vision, and empathy are models for the effective leader.

    2.5 Competence
    Competence is another spiritual quality for effective leadership. Adequate or having due qualification, is essential to leading an organization successfully. An effective leader needs improvement in many areas of management. St. Paul wrote a challenge for us, “Study to show thyself approved unto God, a workman that needs not to be ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth” (2 Timothy 2:15).
    Spiritual qualities of an effective leader zero on the ability to lead others with self-discipline and commitment to improving their strengths, weaknesses, abilities, and potential.
    To be successful in your position and purpose of leadership, you need certain skills. One is the ability to communicate effectively. If members of your staff cannot comprehend your vision for the organization, the vision will no doubt be lost. When you clearly and enthusiastically communicate vision, however, much can be accomplished.
    Then a leader must work hard, setting high standards personally and for those on the team. As the leader sets the example, others will desire to use their ways as role model.

    2.6 Emotional stability
    Another quality of spiritual effective leader is reasonable, confident, patient, and cheerful and emotional stability. It is tremendously important for a leader to act in a reasonable and graceful manner. Instead of reacting angrily, being stubborn/willful, or becoming easily discouraged when plans do not work out or when difficulties arise.
    The leader who overreacts and is impatient with others’ weaknesses and failures is an ineffective leader. Patience is essential when we seek to lead by persuasion rather than by command.

    2.7 Group membership
    Also another spiritual quality of effective leadership is a team building. The presence of friends and coworkers are heightened in happiness, and do their best work when accompanied by those he trusts.
    A good leader is supportive of other parts of the Body. He or she does not perpetuate the “my ministry” philosophy and, most important, the leader is a servant. (Ephesians 4.) In the Bible inevitably Jesus involved his friends in all sorts of risks for the sake of Christ. They followed cheerfully, however, because they were assured of Paul's unselfish love for them.

    2.8 Ability to share leadership
    A good and effective leader has the quality of high regard for those who lead and for those who follow. He or she respects and acknowledges the gifts and callings of others. By example, the leader encourages a team spirit among the staff, rather than individualism.
    An effective leader is humble and can follow others with loyalty and respect. There must be an openness and responsiveness to the organizational leadership.
    The apostle Paul set an important example for us to follow. He knew the responsibilities associated with being a leader and he experienced the joys that come from serving.

    3.0 Spiritual Development as a Quality of Effective Leadership?
    The stressful and turbulent environment surrounding today's principal makes it difficult not to focus all of one's attention on the technical and managerial side of organizational leadership. For example educational theorists (Giroux, 1988; Foster, 1989; Purpel, 1989) contend that administrators are not neutral technical bureaucrats hence they operate from their values. Sergiovanni (1992) also asserts that administrators' actions are not only influenced by their values but administrators should actually take stands and articulate their platforms.
    Starratt (1996) describes a fully human person as possessing three main qualities:
    (1) Autonomy, (2) connectiveness, and (3) transcendence.
    He cautions us against viewing these as a list of virtues we set out to acquire or create in others, and contends that these qualities are never achieved as an acquisition. The qualities are found in the actions of a leader and his or her interactions with others.
    Being autonomous as a leader means being your own person and taking responsibility for your actions. Paradoxically, "a leader cannot express autonomy except in relationship with other people". A leader expressing connectiveness is aware of relationships with others, the relationship with spiritual being, culture and tradition, and the relationship with nature and the natural universe. A leader with transcendence displays a desire to turn toward something greater than or beyond oneself.

    Vaill (1996) discusses "feeling the spirit" not as a force from outside, but rather an intrinsic characteristic that has become manifest to us. Experiences of spirit are inherent in all kinds of entities: in families, in sports teams, in institutions like schools, and in individual persons. We are capable of seeing and feeling the spirit in virtually anything.
    Spiritual development unfortunately carries a religious or mystical connotation. For this reason, many leaders and their communities hesitate to openly discuss morality and spiritual development and their place in organizational leadership. In discussing the religious connotation to morality and spirituality in organizations, Starratt (1996) suggests that to never engage in discussion about moral values is to communicate, by default, the message that moral issues are irrelevant to the public life of the community and that the lessons learned in organizations exist in some impossible, fictional moral vacuum. One of the major lessons of an organizational process is the importance of the discussion of moral values as they are embedded in the circumstances of everyday life.

    Spiritual development ought not to be viewed with so much mysticism and should be demystified. Covig (1996) contends that although moral belief and theory in each of us individually and corporately is undoubtedly a mixture of experience, perception, and maybe even a little superstition, it can endure challenge and confrontation. The inclusion of morality and spirituality in organizational leadership programs must be more intentional and purposeful. Millions of training dollars are being spent annually to develop traditional leadership skills like planning, organizing, vision building, instructional leadership, strategic planning, and team building and they are unquestionably key characteristics. But, are they enough? What is still missing are the core values of the person who would do this thing Vaill calls purposing.

    Bolman & Deal (1995) draw attention to the signs pointing toward spirit and soul as the essence of leadership. There is growing consensus that we need a new paradigm to move beyond the traps of conventional and traditional thinking. Or perhaps we may need to rediscover and renew an old paradigm that is one that has the necessary humanistic and spiritual components.


    If you believe that you could be fired for not completing the task, you will probably put off lunch and complete the task. If you believe that you will not get into trouble or perhaps finish the task in time, then you will likely go to lunch.
    People can be motivated by such forces as beliefs, values, interests, fear, and worthy causes. Some of these forces are internal, such as needs, interests, and beliefs. Others are external, such as danger, the environment, or pressure from a loved one. There is no simple formula for motivation -- you must keep a open viewpoint on human nature. There is a complex array of forces steering the direction of each person and these forces cannot always be seen or studied. In addition, if the same forces are steering two different people, each one may act differently. Knowing that each person may react to different needs will guide your decisions and actions in certain situations.
    As a leader you have the power to influence motivation. The following guidelines (U.S. Army Handbook, 1973) form a basic view of motivation. They will help guide your decision making process:
    Allow the needs of your team to coincide with the needs of your organization. Nearly everyone is influenced by the needs for job security, promotion, raises, and approval of their peers and/or leaders. They are also influenced by internal forces such as values morals, and ethics. Likewise, the organization needs good people in a wide variety of jobs. Ensure that your team is trained, encouraged, and has opportunities to advance. Also, ensure that the way you conduct business has the same values, moral, and ethic principles that you seek in others. If you conduct business in a dishonest manner, your team will be dishonest to you, for that will be the kind of people that you will attract.
    Reward good behavior. Although a certificate, letter, or a thank you may seem small and insignificant, they can be powerful motivators. The reward should be specific and prompt. Do not say something general, such as "for doing a good job," rather cite the specific action that made you believe it was indeed a good job. In addition, help those who are good. We all make mistakes or need help on an occasion to achieve a particular goal.
    Set the example. You must be the role model that you want others to grow into.
    Develop moral and esprit de corps. Moral is the mental, emotional, and spiritual state of a person. Almost everything you do will have an impact on your organization. You should always be aware how your actions and decisions might affect it. Esprit de corps means team spirit - it is defined as the spirit of the organization or collective body (in French it literally means "spirit of the body"). It is the consciousness of the organization that allows the people within it to identify with and feel a part of. Is your workplace a place where people cannot wait to get away from; or is it a place that people enjoy spending a part of their lives?

    Allow your team to be part of the planning and problem solving process. This helps with their development and allows you to coach them. Secondly, it motivates them -- people who are part of the decision making process become the owners of it, thus it gives them a personal interest in seeing the plan succeed. thirdly, communication is clearer as everyone has a better understanding of what role they must play as part of the team. Next, it creates an open trusting communication bond. They are no longer just the doers for the organization -- they are now part of it! Finally, recognition and appreciation from a respected leader are powerful motivators.
    Look out for your team. Although you do not have control over their personal lives, you must show concern for them. Things that seem of no importance to you might be extremely critical to them. You must be able to empathize with them. This is from the German word, einfuhling, which means "to feel with", or the ability to perceive another person's view of the world as though that view were your own. The Sioux Indian Tribal Prayer reads, "Great Spirit, help us never to judge another until we have walked for two weeks in his moccasins." Also note that empathy differs from sympathy in that sympathy connotes spontaneous emotion rather than a conscious, reasoned response. Sympathizing with others may be less useful to another person if we are limited by the strong feelings of the moment.
    Keep them informed. Keeping the communication channel open allows a person to have a sense of control over their lives.
    Make their jobs challenging, exciting, and meaningful. Make each feel like an individual in a great team...rather than a cog in a lifeless machine. People need meaningful work, even if it is tiring and unpleasant; they need to know that it is important and necessary for the survival of the organization.
    Counsel people who behave in a way that is counter to the company's goals. All the guidelines before this took the positive approach. But, sometimes this does not always work. You must let people know when they are not performing to an acceptable standard. By the same token, you must protect them when needed. For example, if someone in your department is always late arriving for work and it is causing disruptions, then you must take action. On the other hand, if you have an extremely good department and once in a while they are a few minutes late, then do the right thing...protect them from the bureaucracy!

    Counseling has a powerful, long-term impact on people and the effectiveness of the organization. Counseling is talking with a person in a way that helps him or her solve a problem. It involves thinking, implementing, knowing human nature, timing, sincerity, compassion, and kindness. It involves much more that simply telling someone what to do about a problem.
    Leaders must demonstrate the following qualities in order to counsel effectively.
    1 Respect for employees - This includes the belief that individuals are responsible for their own actions and ideas. It includes an awareness of a person's individuality by recognizing their unique values, attributes, and skills. As you attempt to develop people with counseling, you must refrain from projecting your own values onto them.
    2 Self-Awareness - This quality is an understanding of yourself as a leader. The more you are aware of your own values, needs, and biases, the less likely you will be to project your feelings onto your employees.
    3 Credibility - Believability is achieved through both honesty and consistency between both the leader's statements and actions. Credible leaders are straightforward with their subordinates and behave in such a manner that earns the subordinates' respect and trust.
    4 Empathy - or compassion entails understanding a subordinates situation. Empathetic leaders will be better able to help subordinates identify the situation and then develop a plan to improve it.
    The reason for counseling is to help employees develop in order to achieve organizational goals. At times, the counseling is directed by policy, and at other times, leaders should choose to counsel to develop employees. Regardless of the nature of the counseling, leaders should demonstrate the qualities of an effective counselor (respect, self-awareness, credibility, and empathy) and employ the skills of good communication.
    While the reason for counseling is to develop subordinates, leaders often categorize counseling based on the topic of the session. Major categories include performance counseling, problem counseling, and individual growth counseling (development). While these categories help leaders to organize and focus counseling sessions, they must not be viewed as separate and distinct types of counseling. For example a counseling session which mainly focuses on resolving a problem may also have a great impact on improving job performance. Another example is a counseling session that focuses on performance may also include a discussion of opportunities for growth. Regardless of the topic of the counseling session, you should follow the same basic format to prepare for and conduct counseling.
    Steps for counseling
    1. Identify the problem. Ensure you get to the heart of the problem. The Japanese use a practice called the Five Whys. They ask "why" five times when confronted with a problem -- by the time the fifth why is answered, they believe they have found the ultimate cause of the problem.
    2. Analyze the forces influencing the behavior. Determine which of these forces you have control over and which of the forces the worker has control over. Determine if the force has to be modified, eliminated, or enforced.
    3. Plan, coordinate, and organize the session. Determine the best time to conduct the session so that you will not be interrupted or forced to end too early.
    4. Conduct the session using sincerity, compassion, and kindness. This does not mean you cannot be firm or in control. Your reputation is on the line...the problem must be solved so that your department can continue with its mission. Likewise, you must hear the person out.
    5. During the session, determine what the worker believes causes the counter productive behavior and what will be required to change it. Also, determine if your initial analysis is correct.
    6. Try to maintain a sense of timing of when to use directive or nondirective counseling (see below).
    7. Using all the facts, make a decision and/or a plan of action to correct the problem. If more counseling is needed, make a firm time and date for the next session.
    8. After the session and throughout a sufficient time period evaluate the worker's progress to ensure the problem has indeed been solved.
    There are two type of counseling - directive and nondirective. In directive counseling, the counselor identifies the problem and tells the counselee what to do about it. Nondirective counseling means the counselee identifies the problem and determines the solution with the help of the counselor. The counselor has to determine which of the two, or some appropriate combination, to give for each situation. For example, "Put that cigarette out now as this is a nonsmoking area," is a form of directive counseling. While a form of nondirective counseling would be, "So the reason you are not effective is that you were up late last night. What are you going to do to ensure that this does not effect your performance again?"
    Hints for counseling sessions:
    1 Let the person know that the behavior is undesirable, not the person.
    2 Let the person know that you care about him or her as a person, but that you expect more from them.
    3 Do not punish employees who are unable to perform a task. Punish those who are able to perform the task but are unwilling or unmotivated to succeed.
    4 Counseling sessions should be conducted in private immediately after the undesirable behavior. Do not humiliate a person in front of others.
    5 Ensure that the employee understands exactly what behavior led to the counseling or punishment.
    6 Do not hold a grudge. When it is over...it is over! Move on!
    Performance Appraisals
    The performance appraisal or evaluation is one of the most powerful motivational tools available to a leader. It has three main objectives:
    1 To measure performance fairly and objectively against job requirements. This allows effective workers to be rewarded for their efforts and ineffective workers to be put on the line for poor performance.
    2 To increase performance by identifying specific development goals. "If you don't know where you are going, any road will take you there" - Lewis Carrol. The appraisal allows the worker to target specific areas for job growth...it should be a time to plan for better performance on the job.
    3 To develop career goals so that the worker may keep pace with the requirements of a fast paced organization. More and more, every job in an organization becomes more demanding with new requirements. Just because a worker is performing effectively in her job today, does not mean she will be able to perform effectively tomorrow. She must be allowed to grow with the job and the organization.
    A lot of people consider giving performance appraisals as being quite uncomfortable. However, it is not the judging of people that is really uncomfortable, rather it is the judging of bad performance that is uncomfortable. Thus, eliminate poor performance in the first place, and performance appraisals become a lot more pleasant to give. Now of course you are not going to eliminate poor performances completely, however, with a little bit of planning they can be greatly reduced.
    Performance has often been described as "purposeful work" -- that is, a job exists to achieve specific and defined results. And what bad performers really do is perform "work activities" (busy work), rather than activities that contributes to effective performance.
    The first step in performance planning is to determine the results that you want the performer to achieve. After all, workers generally want to know what they need to do, how well you need them to do it, and how well they are actually doing it (feedback).
    In addition, a worker should not walk blindly into a performance appraisal. Past counseling sessions, feedback, and one-on-ones should give her a pretty clear understanding of what to expect from the appraisal. If you blind-side her, you have not done your job as a leader. Helping your team grow is not a once or twice yearly task, but a full-time duty.
    The appraisal should be a joint effort. No one knows the job better than the person performing it. By turning the appraisal into a real discussion, rather than a lecture, the leader may learn some insightful information that could help boost his or her performance in the future. Before the meeting, have the worker complete her own self-appraisal. Although you might think they will take advantage of this by giving themselves unearned high marks, studies have shown that most workers rate themselves more critically than the leader would have.
    Should Performance Appraisals be Scrapped?
    There has been some talk of completely doing away with performance appraisals as they sometimes do more harm that they cause. Yet performance appraisals are tools and like any other tool, they can be used correctly or incorrectly. Part of the problem might be with its name -- "Performance Appraisal", which has sort of a judgmental sound to it; perhaps "Performance Planning and Review" might be a better term for it.
    Part-time employees at Trader Joe's are reviewed every three months, which is an unusually frequent rate of evaluation (Speizer, 2004). In addition, the part-time employees of Trader Joe's are paid higher wages, as are their full-time workers, than what you will find in the normal grocery store (an average of $16 per hour vs $12).

    What is interesting about all of this is that they have been bought three times, and NOT because they are losing money -- they make more money per square foot of business than the average grocery store. The new leadership teams have never said that they need to pay them what the rest of the industry pays. Why? Because they see the value in their workers! Rather than giving lip-service to "employees our are most valuable asset", they actually walk-the-talk.
    Yet, one of the arguments for scrapping performance appraisals is that ALL workers' pay should be aligned with the labor market -- they do not deserve annual pay raises as it inflates the wage and salary structure.
    Traditionally, roles have remained the same while goals change (Buchen, 2004). Yet, due to the rapid changes that occur on a day-to-day basis, the roles are actually changing, even though they might remained fixed on paper. Performance appraisals often fail to factor in the changing relationships between goals and roles that are often in a high state of metamorphosis. That is, our attention remains fixed on steadfast goals, while ignoring ever-changing roles.
    This type of thinking shows up in a lot of industries as they view their workers' jobs as set roles, even though the world is rapidly changing. For example, the 2004 grocery strike in California forced many shoppers to look at alternatives, thus they started shopping at Traders Joe's (who were not part of the strike). And many of these shoppers never went back to their regular stores (who see their employees playing traditional roles) because they enjoy the experience they have at Trader Joe's. Yet Trader Joe's was not always like this -- it started out more like a Seven-Eleven, but because of the competition it went in search of its present niche and recognized along the way that its employee's roles also needed to change. So even though they still deal in the same commodity as the larger grocery stores -- food -- they not only changed the way they bought food (goal), but also in they way they deliver that food to the customer (role).

    Although spiritual development may possess a sacredness which communities can celebrate, it possesses a secular currency (Covig, 1996) to improve schools and leadership within them. Spiritual development encourages and facilitates positive changes in the school community and the lives of those within. School leaders who fail to realize the potential of spiritual development miss the strengths of its application in school leadership.
    Leading with spirit is not something easily learned by reading a book or attending leadership workshops. We even question whether or not it can be acquired. We do know however, that we can recognize leaders with spirit. These folks have some obvious qualities - a combination of head and heart, mind and body, and intellect and feeling toward others. Leaders with spirit have a deep sense of values and beliefs - and a willingness to expose those values and beliefs for inspection and dialogue with others.
    School leaders must learn to lead not from the apex of the organizational pyramid but from the nexus of a web of interpersonal relationships - with people rather than through them (Murphy, 1992). The heart of leadership has to do with what a person believes, values, dreams about, and is committed to (Sergiovanni, 1992). "It is the person's interior world which becomes the foundation of her or his reality"(p.7).
    The ability to articulate basic values and beliefs is not on the present list of key leadership characteristics. Much discussion focuses on paradigm shifts and moving from the industrial age to the information age, with little emphasis placed upon the qualities of mind, body, and spirit that are required in implementing such shifts. Few are talking about creating settings in which the men and women we expect to lead organizations can really engage themselves, each other, and the issues at a deep level - a level that brings their spiritual condition into the conversation and provides them with the opportunity to learn and grow spiritually (Vaill, 1998).
    Perhaps we must face the realization, as Vaill (1998) believes: true leadership is spiritual leadership. Throughout most of this century, educational leadership has focused on conceptions of leadership based on theoretical models from business management (e.g., T.Q.M., Quality Circles, etc.). There now is a growing belief that to prepare leaders for the new millennium, the pendulum must swing back to the value and moral dimension of leadership (Murphy, 1992). Administrators in the new century will need to be more focused and involved in articulating their personal values, beliefs, and spirituality than those who have traditionally held the job.
    We have learned that leadership behaviors affect student outcomes and the success or failure of schools. Especially important is the realization that a leader's personal values, beliefs, and spirituality form and guide his/her leadership behaviors. To lead our schools and their communities into the new millennium, preparation programs must help aspiring leaders strengthen the correlation between organizational success and their own spiritual development.

    Adair, J (1983) Effective Leadership, London: Pan Books
    Begley, P.T. (1996). Cognitive perspectives on values in administration: A quest for coherence and relevance. Educational Administration Quarterly, 32 (3), 403-426.
    Bennis, W. & Nanus, B. (1985). Leaders: Strategies for taking charge. New York: Harper Perennial.
    Bolman, L.G. & Deal, T.E. (1995). Leading with soul: An uncommon journey of spirit. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Covey, S. (1989). The seven habits of highly effective people. Fireside, New York, 358 pp.

    Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. Bantam Books, New York, 352 pp.
    Creighton, T. (1998). Rethinking school leadership: Is the principal really needed? In R. Muth (Ed.), Toward the year 2000: Leadership for quality schools (pp. 14-1 to 14 - 19). The Sixth Yearbook of the National Council of Professors of Educational Administration. Lancaster: Technomic Press.

    Kouzes, J., Posner, B. (1997). The leadership challenge. Jossey-Bass Inc., California, 403 pp.

    Picard, M. (1999). Classical studies in leadership binder. Victoria, BC, Royal Roads University

    Short, R. (1998). Learning in relationship. Symmetria, Seattle, 153 pp.
    Vaill, P.V. (1998). Spirited leading and learning: Process wisdom for a new age. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Vaill, P.V. (1996). Learning as a way of being: Strategies for survival in a world of permanent white water. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Yukl, G. (1998). Leadership in organizations. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 564 pp.

  • Salute Herbert!
    Very impressed with your papers!
    Problem is that some bits go missing...Pics etc.
    Next-time email them to joram@joram.biz so I could repost them on http://www.alluta.org/blog
    or, register there and have more access to posting.
    The referencing statistics is higher; meaning, you have a bigger audience for your posting.

    Else, you can wait for a couple of weeks for the new media platform that we are launching here....you'll become the media-you'll be empowered!

    Best regards




    REG NO: 2004/HD03/2397U



    CODE: 7306


    ACADEMIC YEAR: 2005/2006


    QUESTION: Write a paper on an organization of your own choice (MAKERERE UNIVERSITY), discussing the human labour relations in that organization. Suggest how these relations can be improved.



    Labour management relations is a process through which employers and unions negotiate pay, hours of work, conditions of employment, sign a contract governing such conditions for specific period of time and share responsibilities for administering the resulting contract (Kathryn et al, 1998).
    Labour relations is a broad field encompassing all the myriad interchanges between employers and employees. While labor relations is most often used to discuss this exchange as it pertains to unionized employees, it may also refer to non-union employees as well. Labour relations are dictated in a large part by the government of a nation and the various regulations it provides to industry regarding the treatment of employees.
    In the United States, labor relations gained a huge boost with the passage of the National Labor Relations Act in 1935. This act covered a wide range of labor rights, including the right to strike, the right to bargain as a union, and a general right to protest and take action to achieve their desires. The National Labor Relations Act, also known as the Wagner Act, gave most employees these rights. It was upheld by the Supreme Court in 1937.
    The field of labor relations looks at the relationship between management and workers, particularly groups of workers represented by a labor union.
    Labor relations can take place on many levels, such as the "shop-floor", the regional level, and the national level. The distribution of power amongst these levels can greatly shape the way an economy functions.
    Another key question when considering systems of labor relations is their ability to adapt to change. This change can be technological such as "What do we do when an industry employing half the population becomes obsolete?", "How do we respond to globalization?", "How dependent is the system on a certain party or coalition holding power?".
    Governments set the framework for labor relations through legislation and regulation. Typically employment law would cover issues such as minimum wages and wrongful dismissal.
    In summary, the employer/employee relationship is ever changing in today's business world. Employers must be careful to determine who their employees are. If temporary employees are going to be used, it is incumbent on the employer, in most organizations, to abstain from controlling the temporary employees as much as possible. Otherwise, workers that the employer thought were independent contractors or employees of a temporary agency could become their own borrowed employees.
    We are living through some very challenging and chaotic times for organizations as well as individuals. During times like these, organizations' needs for achieving competitiveness and individuals' needs for achieving a greater sense of career resiliency as well as balance, purpose and meaningfulness in their lives become increasingly important. It is a particularly appropriate time for reflecting on what people want and need most from their work, how organizations can impact people accordingly through their management and employment practices and, ultimately, impact organizational results and competitiveness.

    This study looks at Makerere University in line with its human labour relations and how these relations have affected its growth to the current status. The study looks at the Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats and Gender (SWOT/G) Makerere University encounters as per its human labour relations management.
    Established in 1922 as a humble technical school, Makerere University is one of the oldest and most prestigious Universities in Africa. In the same year (January, 922), the school, was renamed Uganda Technical College. It opened its doors with 14-day students who began studying Carpentry, Building and Mechanics.
    The College soon began offering various other courses in Medical Care, Agriculture, Veterinary Sciences and Teacher Training. It expanded over the years to become a Center for Higher Education in East Africa in 1935. In 1937, the College started developing into an institution of higher education, offering post-school certificate courses. In 1949, it became a University College affiliated to the University College of London. In 1963 it became the University of East Africa, offering courses leading to general degrees of the University of London.
    With the establishment of the University of East Africa on 29th June 1963, the special relationship with the University of London came to a close and degrees of the University of East Africa were instituted. On July 1, 1970, Makerere became an independent national university of the Republic of Uganda, offering undergraduate and postgraduate courses leading to its own awards.
    Today Makerere University has twenty-four (24) faculties/institutes/schools offering not only day but also evening and external study programmes to a student body of well over 30,000 undergraduates and more than 4,000 postgraduates (both Ugandan and foreign). It is also a very active centre for research.
    The university is located on Makerere hill, one of the many hills on which Kampala, the capital city of Uganda is built. The main campus is about 5km to the north of the city centre covering an area of 300 acres (two square kilometers).
    The location offers an excellent academic environment, because the University is free from all forms of disturbances associated with city locations.
    Makerere University is founded on over seven decades of continuous teaching, research and service. In the new millennium, Makerere University strives to recruit excellent staff, initiate cutting edge research and produce more and better-educated graduates, who are representative of society. In order to expand in the teaching, research and service areas, it recognizes the paramount importance of enhancing recent innovations in Information Technology in the areas of curriculum development, knowledge and management within the local, regional and global context of increased competition.
    Makerere University continue to serve as a “think tank” to inform the policy makers and implementers as well as in the provision of first – class educational and other services.
    The transformation that Makerere has gone through in the area of sustainable income generation especially fee-for-service expands now and then.

    1.2.1 Makerere University Staffing
    TABLE 1: Senior non-academic staff of administrative departments by job titles and number, February, 2004
    Job Title Total
    Vice Chancellor 1
    Deputy Vice Chancellor 2
    Principal 1
    University Secretary, Academic Registrar, Bursar, Dean of Students, 4
    Director of Planning (Professor equivalent) 5
    Deputy Secretary/Registrar (Associate Professor equivalent) 18
    Senior Assistant Secretary/Registrar (Senior Lecturer equivalent) 33
    Assistant Registrar/Secretary (Lecturer equivalent) 44
    Administrative Assistant (Teaching Assistant equivalent) 52
    Total 162

    TABLE 2: The academic staff at Makerere, February, 2004
    Professors Associate Professors Senior Lecturers Lecturers Assistant Lecturers Total
    49 62 242 481 200 1,034

    TABLE 3: Support staff on senior terms of service, February,2004
    Job Title Number
    Chief Technician and equivalent 46
    Principal Technician/Senior Personal Secretary and equivalent 39
    Total 85

    TABLE 4: Intermediate-level support employees, February, 2004
    Job Title Number
    Senior Technician, Personal Secretary, Senior Executive Officer and equivalent 64
    Technician I, Stenographer, Secretary, Assistant Librarian, Higher Executive Officer, Domestic Bursar and equivalent 121
    Technician II, Pool Stenographer, Principal Copy Typist, Executive Officer, Assistant Domestic Bursar and equivalent 178
    Laboratory Assistant I, Senior Copy Typist, Chief Custodian, Senior Library Assistant, Senior Clerical Officer and equivalent 227
    Laboratory Assistant II, Copy Typist, Custodian, Library Assistant, Clerical Officer and equivalent 434
    Total 1,024

    SOURCE: © 2005 Carnegie Corporation of New York, The Ford Foundation, the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, and the Rockefeller Foundation.
    1.3.1 THE VISION
    To be a center of academic excellence, providing world-class teaching, research and service relevant to sustainable development needs.
    To provide quality teaching, carryout research and offer professional services to meet the changing needs of society by utilizing world wide and internally generated human resources, information and technology to enhance the university’s leading position in Uganda and beyond.
    1.3.3 GOALS
    (i) To expand student enrollment at a rate of 10% per annum from a student body of 22,000 in 1999/2000 and achieve under graduate to post graduate students ratio of 4:1 by 2004/5.
    (ii) To improve on academic standards through continuous curriculum review and development of the semester system.
    (iii) To continuously review curricular of University academic programs with a view to improving external efficiency.
    (iv) To initiate equitable basic and applied research responsive to the emerging problems and opportunities in order to meet the changing needs of our constituents and stakeholders.
    (v) To improve on the efficiency of Makerere University by developing Information Technology capacity in storage, retrieval and dissemination of information for management, teaching, research and learning.
    (vi) To improve on the operational efficiency of the University by reducing on bureaucracy and further devolving powers to operational units.
    (vii)To provide competitive terms and conditions of service particularly remuneration, promotion, retirement and other benefits in order to attract, and retain staff with a view to ensuring job satisfaction.
    (viii) To promote the adaptation of international technological breakthroughs in the areas of medicine, biotechnology, natural resource management and the environment.
    (ix) To enhance local income generation capacity through innovative and creative academic programs and other sources such as service for fee to the wider business community and alumni.
    (x) To focus a substantial share of donor and budgetary resources to laboratory based faculties with a view to enhancing their teaching and income generation capacity.
    (xi) To give priority to infrastructural maintenance, expansion and rationalization in order to meet education and academic targets.
    (xii) To improve on students welfare in the areas of accommodation, counseling and other services.

    There are three trade unions operating at Makerere University as mentioned below;
    Ø Makerere University academic Staff Association (MUASA)
    Ø Makerere University Administrative Staff Association (ASA)
    Ø National Union of Educational Institutions (NUEI) Makerere
    MUASA takes care of academic staff needs and interests. Its main aim among others is to address academic staff grievances and promote their bargaining power with the university management and the Uganda government as far as their rights and benefits are concerned.

    The recently created Makerere University Administrative Staff Association (ASA) takes care of the interests of the non-academic staff who are at the managerial level like the Deputy Registrars, Faculty Administrators, Personal Secretaries, Departmental heads and so on.
    However MUASA and ASA are not yet affiliated to National Organization of Trade Union (NOTU) as required by the labour laws.

    The National Union of Educational Institutions (NUEI) Makerere Branch takes care of the support staff (popularly known as the group employees). This is affiliated to the National Organization of Trade Union (NOTU).
    NOTU was established by Decree No. 29 of 1973 and is the only principal organization of employees (workers) in Uganda to which all registered trade unions must affiliate.
    NOTU is the National Centre coordinating the Uganda labour movement and the activities of all registered trade unions affiliated to it.

    1. To promote and safeguard the interest of all registered trade unions affiliated to it and workers throughout Uganda.
    2. To assist such Union to find practical solutions to problems organization and administration.
    3. To settle disputes concerning representation and demarcations matters.
    4. To determine the jurisdiction boundaries of Unions in line with the established policies and practices.
    5. To encourage the development of strong, unified and viable Unions in Uganda and to discourage the development of revival unions.
    6. To give legal advice and legal assistance to its affiliates.
    7. Generally to promote the welfare of workers of Uganda
    8. To promote social and economic benefits to its members.
    9. To assist all its affiliates in establishing and maintaining sound industrial relations.
    10. To operate and promote, aid and encourage the establishment of cooperatives and other economic institutions owned wholly or partly by workers, affiliated Unions or NOTU on their behalf.
    11. To assist and improve workers' knowledge and skills by organizing courses and seminars, in collaboration with other interested bodies as shall be deemed necessary for the promotion of workers' interests.
    12. To secure adequate presentation on government and industrial bodies dealing with the labour legislation or any other matters affecting labour.

    A more comprehensive SWOT/G analysis reveals the following strengths, weaknesses, opportunities threats and Gender issues for Makerere University:
    (a) Strengths
    · Reputation
    · Location






    CODE: 7306


    ACADEMIC YEAR: 2005/2006


    QUESTION: Write a paper on an organization of your own choice (MAKERERE UNIVERSITY), discussing the human labour relations in that organization. Suggest how these relations can be improved.



    Labour management relations is a process through which employers and unions negotiate pay, hours of work, conditions of employment, sign a contract governing such conditions for specific period of time and share responsibilities for administering the resulting contract (Kathryn et al, 1998).
    Labour relations is a broad field encompassing all the myriad interchanges between employers and employees. While labor relations is most often used to discuss this exchange as it pertains to unionized employees, it may also refer to non-union employees as well. Labour relations are dictated in a large part by the government of a nation and the various regulations it provides to industry regarding the treatment of employees.
    In the United States, labor relations gained a huge boost with the passage of the National Labor Relations Act in 1935. This act covered a wide range of labor rights, including the right to strike, the right to bargain as a union, and a general right to protest and take action to achieve their desires. The National Labor Relations Act, also known as the Wagner Act, gave most employees these rights. It was upheld by the Supreme Court in 1937.
    The field of labor relations looks at the relationship between management and workers, particularly groups of workers represented by a labor union.
    Labor relations can take place on many levels, such as the "shop-floor", the regional level, and the national level. The distribution of power amongst these levels can greatly shape the way an economy functions.
    Another key question when considering systems of labor relations is their ability to adapt to change. This change can be technological such as "What do we do when an industry employing half the population becomes obsolete?", "How do we respond to globalization?", "How dependent is the system on a certain party or coalition holding power?".
    Governments set the framework for labor relations through legislation and regulation. Typically employment law would cover issues such as minimum wages and wrongful dismissal.
    In summary, the employer/employee relationship is ever changing in today's business world. Employers must be careful to determine who their employees are. If temporary employees are going to be used, it is incumbent on the employer, in most organizations, to abstain from controlling the temporary employees as much as possible. Otherwise, workers that the employer thought were independent contractors or employees of a temporary agency could become their own borrowed employees.
    We are living through some very challenging and chaotic times for organizations as well as individuals. During times like these, organizations' needs for achieving competitiveness and individuals' needs for achieving a greater sense of career resiliency as well as balance, purpose and meaningfulness in their lives become increasingly important. It is a particularly appropriate time for reflecting on what people want and need most from their work, how organizations can impact people accordingly through their management and employment practices and, ultimately, impact organizational results and competitiveness.

    This study looks at Makerere University in line with its human labour relations and how these relations have affected its growth to the current status. The study looks at the Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats and Gender (SWOT/G) Makerere University encounters as per its human labour relations management.
    Established in 1922 as a humble technical school, Makerere University is one of the oldest and most prestigious Universities in Africa. In the same year (January, 922), the school, was renamed Uganda Technical College. It opened its doors with 14-day students who began studying Carpentry, Building and Mechanics.
    The College soon began offering various other courses in Medical Care, Agriculture, Veterinary Sciences and Teacher Training. It expanded over the years to become a Center for Higher Education in East Africa in 1935. In 1937, the College started developing into an institution of higher education, offering post-school certificate courses. In 1949, it became a University College affiliated to the University College of London. In 1963 it became the University of East Africa, offering courses leading to general degrees of the University of London.
    With the establishment of the University of East Africa on 29th June 1963, the special relationship with the University of London came to a close and degrees of the University of East Africa were instituted. On July 1, 1970, Makerere became an independent national university of the Republic of Uganda, offering undergraduate and postgraduate courses leading to its own awards.
    Today Makerere University has twenty-four (24) faculties/institutes/schools offering not only day but also evening and external study programmes to a student body of well over 30,000 undergraduates and more than 4,000 postgraduates (both Ugandan and foreign). It is also a very active centre for research.
    The university is located on Makerere hill, one of the many hills on which Kampala, the capital city of Uganda is built. The main campus is about 5km to the north of the city centre covering an area of 300 acres (two square kilometers).
    The location offers an excellent academic environment, because the University is free from all forms of disturbances associated with city locations.
    Makerere University is founded on over seven decades of continuous teaching, research and service. In the new millennium, Makerere University strives to recruit excellent staff, initiate cutting edge research and produce more and better-educated graduates, who are representative of society. In order to expand in the teaching, research and service areas, it recognizes the paramount importance of enhancing recent innovations in Information Technology in the areas of curriculum development, knowledge and management within the local, regional and global context of increased competition.
    Makerere University continue to serve as a “think tank” to inform the policy makers and implementers as well as in the provision of first – class educational and other services.
    The transformation that Makerere has gone through in the area of sustainable income generation especially fee-for-service expands now and then.

    1.2.1 Makerere University Staffing
    TABLE 1: Senior non-academic staff of administrative departments by job titles and number, February, 2004
    Job Title Total
    Vice Chancellor 1
    Deputy Vice Chancellor 2
    Principal 1
    University Secretary, Academic Registrar, Bursar, Dean of Students, 4
    Director of Planning (Professor equivalent) 5
    Deputy Secretary/Registrar (Associate Professor equivalent) 18
    Senior Assistant Secretary/Registrar (Senior Lecturer equivalent) 33
    Assistant Registrar/Secretary (Lecturer equivalent) 44
    Administrative Assistant (Teaching Assistant equivalent) 52
    Total 162

    TABLE 2: The academic staff at Makerere, February, 2004
    Professors Associate Professors Senior Lecturers Lecturers Assistant Lecturers Total
    49 62 242 481 200 1,034

    TABLE 3: Support staff on senior terms of service, February,2004
    Job Title Number
    Chief Technician and equivalent 46
    Principal Technician/Senior Personal Secretary and equivalent 39
    Total 85

    TABLE 4: Intermediate-level support employees, February, 2004
    Job Title Number
    Senior Technician, Personal Secretary, Senior Executive Officer and equivalent 64
    Technician I, Stenographer, Secretary, Assistant Librarian, Higher Executive Officer, Domestic Bursar and equivalent 121
    Technician II, Pool Stenographer, Principal Copy Typist, Executive Officer, Assistant Domestic Bursar and equivalent 178
    Laboratory Assistant I, Senior Copy Typist, Chief Custodian, Senior Library Assistant, Senior Clerical Officer and equivalent 227
    Laboratory Assistant II, Copy Typist, Custodian, Library Assistant, Clerical Officer and equivalent 434
    Total 1,024

    SOURCE: © 2005 Carnegie Corporation of New York, The Ford Foundation, the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, and the Rockefeller Foundation.
    1.3.1 THE VISION
    To be a center of academic excellence, providing world-class teaching, research and service relevant to sustainable development needs.
    To provide quality teaching, carryout research and offer professional services to meet the changing needs of society by utilizing world wide and internally generated human resources, information and technology to enhance the university’s leading position in Uganda and beyond.
    1.3.3 GOALS
    (i) To expand student enrollment at a rate of 10% per annum from a student body of 22,000 in 1999/2000 and achieve under graduate to post graduate students ratio of 4:1 by 2004/5.
    (ii) To improve on academic standards through continuous curriculum review and development of the semester system.
    (iii) To continuously review curricular of University academic programs with a view to improving external efficiency.
    (iv) To initiate equitable basic and applied research responsive to the emerging problems and opportunities in order to meet the changing needs of our constituents and stakeholders.
    (v) To improve on the efficiency of Makerere University by developing Information Technology capacity in storage, retrieval and dissemination of information for management, teaching, research and learning.
    (vi) To improve on the operational efficiency of the University by reducing on bureaucracy and further devolving powers to operational units.
    (vii)To provide competitive terms and conditions of service particularly remuneration, promotion, retirement and other benefits in order to attract, and retain staff with a view to ensuring job satisfaction.
    (viii) To promote the adaptation of international technological breakthroughs in the areas of medicine, biotechnology, natural resource management and the environment.
    (ix) To enhance local income generation capacity through innovative and creative academic programs and other sources such as service for fee to the wider business community and alumni.
    (x) To focus a substantial share of donor and budgetary resources to laboratory based faculties with a view to enhancing their teaching and income generation capacity.
    (xi) To give priority to infrastructural maintenance, expansion and rationalization in order to meet education and academic targets.
    (xii) To improve on students welfare in the areas of accommodation, counseling and other services.

    There are three trade unions operating at Makerere University as mentioned below;
    Ø Makerere University academic Staff Association (MUASA)
    Ø Makerere University Administrative Staff Association (ASA)
    Ø National Union of Educational Institutions (NUEI) Makerere
    MUASA takes care of academic staff needs and interests. Its main aim among others is to address academic staff grievances and promote their bargaining power with the university management and the Uganda government as far as their rights and benefits are concerned.

    The recently created Makerere University Administrative Staff Association (ASA) takes care of the interests of the non-academic staff who are at the managerial level like the Deputy Registrars, Faculty Administrators, Personal Secretaries, Departmental heads and so on.
    However MUASA and ASA are not yet affiliated to National Organization of Trade Union (NOTU) as required by the labour laws.

    The National Union of Educational Institutions (NUEI) Makerere Branch takes care of the support staff (popularly known as the group employees). This is affiliated to the National Organization of Trade Union (NOTU).
    NOTU was established by Decree No. 29 of 1973 and is the only principal organization of employees (workers) in Uganda to which all registered trade unions must affiliate.
    NOTU is the National Centre coordinating the Uganda labour movement and the activities of all registered trade unions affiliated to it.

    1. To promote and safeguard the interest of all registered trade unions affiliated to it and workers throughout Uganda.
    2. To assist such Union to find practical solutions to problems organization and administration.
    3. To settle disputes concerning representation and demarcations matters.
    4. To determine the jurisdiction boundaries of Unions in line with the established policies and practices.
    5. To encourage the development of strong, unified and viable Unions in Uganda and to discourage the development of revival unions.
    6. To give legal advice and legal assistance to its affiliates.
    7. Generally to promote the welfare of workers of Uganda
    8. To promote social and economic benefits to its members.
    9. To assist all its affiliates in establishing and maintaining sound industrial relations.
    10. To operate and promote, aid and encourage the establishment of cooperatives and other economic institutions owned wholly or partly by workers, affiliated Unions or NOTU on their behalf.
    11. To assist and improve workers' knowledge and skills by organizing courses and seminars, in collaboration with other interested bodies as shall be deemed necessary for the promotion of workers' interests.
    12. To secure adequate presentation on government and industrial bodies dealing with the labour legislation or any other matters affecting labour.

    A more comprehensive SWOT/G analysis reveals the following strengths, weaknesses, opportunities threats and Gender issues for Makerere University:
    (a) Strengths
    · Reputation
    · Location
    · Infrastructure
    · Qualified Staff
    · Good Management
    · Alumni
    · International Linkages

    (b) Weaknesses
    · Conservatism
    · Poor terms of service
    · Government interference
    · Finance
    · Bureaucracy
    · Tall Organization Structure
    · Compartmentalization of resources
    · Inadequate and Poorly Maintained Infrastructure
    · Sustainability of funding

    (a) Opportunities
    · Liberalization
    · Donor Sympathy
    · Growth in the Economy

    (b) Threat
    · Decentralization and Privatization effects on the educational sector
    · Competition from private Universities and others higher institutions of learning
    · Political Instability for example LRA war which negatively affects the University budget
    . Disease (AIDS) whereby many people have been infected and affected by the disease.
    · Donor Fatigue because of the conditions attached to their donations
    · Globalization which takes all the universities worldwide to be at the same footing
    . Information Communication Technology (ICT), which is making the world a global village

    (c) Gender issues
    The Makerere University Gender Mainstreaming Programme (GMP) is implemented by the Gender Mainstreaming Division, which is a unit within the Department of the Academic Registrar. The Division was established in 2002 with the aim of engendering the university function across the board.
    Gender mainstreaming in Makerere University is a strategy for making women’s as well as men’s concerns and experiences an integral dimension of the University function so that women and men benefit equally, thus ensuring that inequality is not perpetuated.
    The Makerere University Strategic Plan 2002/03-2006/7 identifies gender mainstreaming as a priority area alongside Information and Communication Technology (ICT), library services, research, science based disciplines, good governance and human rights.
    Gender Specific Objectives
    1. To promote a gender- friendly, inclusive and secure environment in the university for staff
    2. . To advocate for increased recruitment, promotion and retention of female staff.
    3. To make provision for the training of a critical mass of staff across all university units in gender analytical skills.
    4. To advocate and promote increased participation of women in decision-making at all levels in Makerere University.
    5. To ensure that university policy on women’s access to benefits, allowances and other entitlements is streamlined, regularized and wholly implemented.
    6. To promote the use of gender sensitive language in all forms of communication at Makerere University.

    Caring About Employees' Concerns
    During this study is clearly evident that many employees perceive their life experiences as increasingly frenetic and uncertain, and my recent experience with some of them shows that about more than half of Makerere University workers are not satisfied with their jobs. Many seek a stronger sense of inclusion, connection and control at work, and want to feel more valued and cared about by their managers. Individuals also expect greater flexibility to allow them to achieve desired levels of work/life balance and personal satisfaction. For example at the security department the human labour relations seemed hostile as the junior accused their seniors of not respecting them leading to poor working relations.

    At Makerere University the employee needs and interests seem to be left mainly or solely to the Human Resource department to deal with, where as employees need to feel genuine, caring and concern from all leaders, especially from their immediate managers in addition to Human Resource. Once the above kind of feeling is lacking, employees seem to be quickly becoming dissatisfied hence it is assumed that this will affect productivity and making the results suffer. In some faculties I visited the lower cadres also accused their “bosses” of undermining them and this hostile to human labour relations.
    However some faculties were found to be creating a positive labour relationship among all categories of workers whereby some faculties provided break tea and even some provided lunch.
    It was also found out that during the sad times like losing a dear one, some departments contribute some condolences to the bereaved family and even participate in the burial arrangements. This seemed a strong point in labour relations at the workplaces.
    In some department it was discovered that all the employees do get the top-up allowances. This kind of money is given to an employee on top of their salaries. This supplement allowance was found to create some respect to the management of such departments hence creating positive labour relations at workplaces. However where this allowance is not given, the staff expressed bitterness towards their leaders calling them all sorts of names indicating negative labour relations at work places.
    The endeavours by the university to implement the issue of top-up allowances across the board are facing a stiff resistance from the money generating departments like the faculties and schools. These departments are hesitant to surrender some of their income to a common pool where even the service providers like the security and estate departments can benefit.

    Fostering Individual Engagement and Retention
    It is clear that fostering employee engagement is a critical competitive advantage in human labour management. The way this is done lies in recognizing and addressing both the commonality and the diversity of employees' needs and motivational factors. It is advisable to focus on addressing important needs common to the majority of employees, however, needs which may be important to smaller numbers of individuals should not be underestimated or overlooked, as they could also be likely to have significant impact on engagement and commitment levels.
    Individualized approaches are also needed to address employees' varied career goals, work interests, and motivational factors that is what is most desirable, rewarding and meaningful to them about their work, and why. To make effective decisions about how to help each employee identify and achieve career goals and how to match work assignments to employees' individual interests and motivational factors, managers must get to know their employees well. This requires a considerable amount of time, as well as strong competencies in coaching and communication in order for interactions to be most effective in producing desired results.
    My interaction with the leaders at Makerere University repeatedly identifies that the quality of communication and relationships between employees and their supervisors/managers, ranks low among the most influential factors affecting employees' engagement, relationship, commitment, and retention levels. This has forced some people to move outside the university to look for the green pastures. Makerere University on many occasions aimed at recruiting the best of the best candidates, retention of these resources has had countless challenges simply because the promotional chances at campus takes such a long time that the impatient employees find it difficult to wait.
    It is alleged that some neighboring countries and universities have taken advantaged of such weaknesses to lure away some of the senior members of staff.
    With proper human labour relations such kind of employee turnover is minimized to considerable and manageable rates.

    Attracting and Leveraging Diverse Talent
    To most effectively attract and meet the needs of increasingly diverse customers, organizations like Makerere University need to attract and leverage diverse talent for employment. Therefore, it is important to examine the needs and interests of prospective customers and employees your organization wants to attract, as they may require new and different approaches than the ones currently being pursued.
    It is helpful to do some research to identify how your organization is perceived, what employees like and dislike about the company, why employees choose to resign, and what changes your company may need to make. For individuals who have left your company, find out what would have made them stay, and then do something to make it more likely that other employees will stay and that former employees might return to work for your company in the future.
    It is also critical to recognize that individuals' decisions about which companies they want to work for are heavily influenced by what they hear about how other people are treated there. The more satisfied current and former employees and recent job applicants are regarding their interactions with your organization, the more likely they will be to provide positive rather than negative human labour relations.
    At Makerere University this seems still a nightmare because whenever members of staff go away, they look at it as a chance of filling such a gap with some new employees. Yet the funds wasted in training such employees to fit into the organizational culture and environment is such an expensive venture.
    However some department have realized this that is why many kinds of allowances have been introduced such as evening allowances, invigilation allowances, lunch allowances, imprest allowances, top-up allowances, responsibility allowances, Christmas/Easter/Idd packages, end of year bonuses and so forth. But the service-providing departments like estates remain at a disadvantage.

    Evaluating and Selecting Talent
    In human labour relations this is a very crucial factor. Experience during this study shows that the majority of bad hires and "unsuccessful employment relationships" result from faulty selection processes, and that employee turnover is extremely costly to organizations. Therefore, more effective employee selection is critical for achieving higher levels of employee performance and retention.
    The criteria and methods any organization uses to evaluate and select candidates for hire or promotion should be focused on ensuring new hires "fit" with your organization's culture and work environment.
    However at Makerere University, this seems to be fairing badly because it is said that most employees at Makerere University more especially on the side of non-academic staff have a tendency of leaving the institution immediately they achieve higher qualifications. This is mainly because the salaries at Makerere University are not determined by the employees qualifications but by the category or group in which you work. For example there are some administrative staff that possess PhDs but get the same salaries as first-degree holders.

    Several changes in recent years have been responsible for more attention being paid to employment relations within organizations. The first is the impact of globalization, which has significantly changed the ways in which organizations are managed and work performed. Organizations have resorted to a range of measures to increase efficiency and competitiveness, based not on low wages and natural resources, but on innovation, skills and productivity as ways of improving quality and reducing costs.
    Employee skills have become important determinants not only of flexibility, productivity and quality, but also of employability and the ability to rapidly adapt to current changes.
    Another development, which has shifted attention to workplace relations, is technology. On the one hand, technology management is possible only through people, and the way they are managed and trained affects the success of such transfer. Technology is also displacing traditional jobs and creating new jobs requiring different skills. Further information technology, the limits of which are not known in terms of its potential to effect change, is exerting a tremendous impact on the structure of organizations, the nature and location of work and the way it is organized. In societies of the future information and knowledge will be - as in fact they already are - crucial to competitiveness. Technology is already facilitating changes in organizational structures creating flatter organizations. This has resulted in management effected less by command and supervision, and more through emphasis on cooperation, information sharing and communication, and with a more participative approach to managing people. Modern technology now makes it possible for aspects of work to be performed outside the enterprise, for example from home, and even outside national borders.
    A third factor is the changes occurring in workforces, to varying degrees in both private and public n organizations. The skills of an employee are, therefore, an issue on which the interests of employers and employees converge, and the "development" of the employee is now of greater mutual advantage to employers and employees. Hence the greater need than before for cooperative and participative forms of labour relations. Further, the many emerging work arrangements do not fit into the traditional employment relationships.
    However the above kind of work arrangements do not effectively promote sound human labour relations and at Makerere University it was found out by this study that this has not had some overwhelming negative consequences.

    Good supportive labour relations have a positive impact on employees' well being and health and can improve workplace performance. Often important interpersonal skills are learnt from labour relations outside the workplace. Couples that have been for relationship counseling may acquire skills that are transferable to the workplace, such as communication, conflict resolution, negotiation, role modelling, and positive reinforcement skills. Employers that promote family days, social activities and family-friendly work options are more likely to benefit from higher staff morale and retention rates.
    However at Makerere University this seems to be still at a low tone and needs some attention especially from the leaders initiative at all levels.

    v Provide social facilities or a space for informal socializing and relaxation.
    v Subsidise social club events, sport/wellness programmes or gym memberships.
    v Establish social networks; establish support networks within or outside the workplace for workers of different cultures, or ethnic or minority groups. This may include helping set-up the networks, providing space and time to meet, give money for refreshments etc.
    v Provide online networking systems to support specific groups such as women, minorities or gay and bisexual employees who wish to contact others within the organization. This could be a page on the intranet etc.
    v Train all employees on sexual orientation, violence, bullying, harassment etc to help build a culture of understanding and tolerance.
    v Establish cultural awareness training/groups/information sharing.
    At Makerere University these leave a lot to be desired. This calls for concerted effort from all the stakeholders to make sure that the above points are given due attention in order to improve human labour relations at workplaces.

    · Train managers in the importance of healthy personal relationships.
    · Ensure managers are role models in maintaining healthy relationships.
    · Acknowledge and celebrate non-work related events in employees' personal lives such as citizenship ceremonies, graduations, anniversaries etc.
    · Limit long working hours; provide training on managing workloads in order to reduce the number of hours employees spend at work.
    · Encourage productivity not "presenteeism".
    · Provide flexible working options including part-time work, working from home, compressed working week and job sharing.
    · Ensure all employees have adequate evening and weekend time off.
    · Ensure all employees can make and receive personal phone calls during work time. Likewise limit calls to staff in their personal time at home.
    · Large workplaces could assess the need to develop a programme to provide support in the workplace for employees who are experiencing domestic violence.

    It is of paramount importance leaders/ managers of organizations like Makerere University to participate in maintaining respectful and harmonious relations and effective dialogue with the employees, trade unions and all stakeholders to ensure a healthy and productive workplace. This can be done through resolving workplace issues in a fair, credible and effective manner.
    Also organizations like Makerere University should create a more flexible framework, with adequate protections, to manage and support employees and to attract the best people, when and where they are needed. This is a core undertaking in human labour relations management in any organization.
    Managers and leaders in organizations should aim at fostering more collaborative human labour-management relations to ensure a healthy and productive workplace and provide employees at all levels with better-adapted and better-integrated learning and training opportunities.

    Kilemi, M. (1998): Strengthening Government/University Partnerships in Africa: The Experience of Uganda's Makerere University. A Study conducted for the Commonwealth Higher Education Management Services (CHEMS).
    Jochem, S.(2000): Nordic Labour Market Policies in Transition: West European Politics 23, issue 3 (July): 115-(?).
    Makerere University Strategic Plan, 2000/01-2004/05, Kampala, Makerere University Printery.
    Nakanyike B. M. (2003): African Higher Education: An International Reference Handbook, Damtew Teferra and Philip. G. Altbach, Indiana University Press.
    Passi, F.O.(1992): Implementing Change to Improve the Financial Management of Makerere University, Uganda. International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP), Paris.
    Republic of Uganda (1998) "The Universities and Other Institutions of Higher Education Act, 2001 Government Printer, - Kampala.
    Ssebuwufu, P.J.M.(2001): "Reforming Higher Education: Change and Innovation (Finance and Governance) (The case of Makerere University). Paper presented at the Center for African Studies, University of Florida, Gainesville U.S.A. March 23-25”.
    Turner, Lowell.(1998): Fighting for Partnership: Labor and Politics in Unified Germany. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press.

  • Just two days ago the Ugandans witnessed the release of Dr Kizza Besigye the man who gave Museveni a run for his money in 2001 and who intends not to spare him come February 2006. Following the highhanded manner in which Dr Besigye was arrested we saw a number of western countries cut aid to Uganda. The president shamelessly wrote to the British Minister for Overseas Development, Hillary Ben complaining about the aid cuts and telling him Uganda has for all these years been a donor. Now my question is, why doesn't Museveni pay the western countries in the same currency by withdrawing Uganda's donations instead of crying foul? Why has Museveni been in bed with these people for all this long? Have we realised that they are bad today when they are opposed to the life-presidency scheme? Don't we know of the English adage that he who pays the piper calls the tune? Should we benefit from the democracy development fund when we are undemocratic? Museveni must know that his time is up. He must pass on the batton to other athletes.

  • Globalisation and Violence: Implications for peace and security in the Great Lakes Region of Africa
    Paper Abstract
    Contemporary African situation has shown evidence of new forms of violence. The end of the cold war and the Apartheid regime in South Africa have led to the proliferation of weapons particularly light arms into the various regions of Africa. These weapons have been used either in the name of liberation, ethnic cleansing, counter insurgency or as a means to regain lost political power or acquiring wealth. The Great Lakes region of Africa is not an exception to such new forms of violence. This is a region that is grappling with the question of democratic transition and yet its peace and security is threatened by these new forms of violence. The paper analyses the relationship between global forces and the agents of violence vis-à-vis peace and security in the region. The paper proposes that to transform the culture of violence to a culture of peace and security we need to re-think the state and promote a policy of demilitarisation of our societies.
    Introduction: Conceptual Issues
    The Great Lakes region of Africa is generally considered to include the following countries: Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. It is a region that is characterised by widespread violations of human rights. Such violations are the underlying causes of violence, instability and chaos. In this context human rights are taken in a broad perspective that encompasses, the political, civil, social, economic and cultural rights.
    Experiences of violence are not new in the Great Lakes region of Africa. Kingdoms rose and fell through violence and war. However, recent times have shown the emergence of new forms of violence and there is a thinking that globalisation has contributed to the new phenomenon of violence.
    But, what is violence, globalisation and security?
    Garver (1968) suggests that violence is a violation of a person. Persons can be violated either with respect to their bodies (physical violence) or with respect to their ability to make their own decisions (psychological). To him violence is considered as the disempowerment of persons. Similarly, Galtung (1988) conceptualises violence as anything avoidable that impedes human self realisation. Human self realisation is in turn conceived of as the satisfaction of human needs of which Galtung suggests a tentative list, including a large range of needs of physiological, ecological, social and psychological/spiritual kinds.
    Galtung identifies four types of violence in the world today: first, classical violence, that is, deliberately inflicted harm, including not only war, but also torture, ‘inhuman or degrading’ punishment, subjection to mortal dangers and, at the wholly domestic level, crime; secondly, `misery’, seen as the deprivation of basic material needs; thirdly, ‘repression’, being loss of freedoms of various kinds, particularly freedom of choice; and fourthly, ‘alienation’, the deprivation of non material needs for relations with society, others and oneself, resulting in loss of identity.
    Galtung further makes a distinction between direct violence - the first type - and structural violence identified with the rest types. Whereas direct violence is caused by the harmful actions of identifiable individuals against others, structural violence results from features built into the structure of a society, with no identifiable actor at whom to point blame. But he argues that structural violence is avoidable in the sense that society could be structured differently so as to avoid these negative happenings. The same views are shared by Kim, S (1984:181).
    On the other hand, violence may be taken to be positive depending on the context. One of the justifications of Fanon’s social theory and practice of violence is that colonial, social and economic structures established by and sustained through violence had to be replaced by a new structure by use of force and violence (Fanon, 1963). Be as it may, whether violence is used in revolutionary struggles as suggested by Fanon, it destroys life, property, culture and generally peace and security of a society.
    The concept security has been a subject of debate. The debate in the literature has challenged, one of the central assumptions of Realist Perspective that holds protection of the state, its borders, resources, population etc. as the essence of security. Security was provided primarily through military force, backed by a robust economy and stable political leadership. During the cold war, the linkage between military activity and security became so strong that an issue that did not involve military force was simply not a security issue (Baldwin, 1997).
    With the end of the cold war, the state centric notion of security was challenged by a number of scholars and the Defence Review programmes that are going on in Africa. Among the scholars and other publications include (Buzan et al. 1998; Matthew 1989; Booth 1991; Baldwin 1997; Grahm and Poku 2000; South African White Paper on Defence, 1996). As a result of challenging military dominated, state-centric concepts of security, a broad understanding has been the emergence of new concepts that is, society security (Waever, 1995); human security (Booth, 1991; UNDP, 1999); and international security (The UN Charter).
    For this paper security is understood as an all-encompassing condition in which individuals live in freedom, peace and safety; participate fully in the process of governance; enjoy the protection of fundamental rights; have access to resources and the basic necessities of life; and inhabit an environment which is not detrimental to their health and well being.
    Violence as conceptualised by Galtung that is, direct and structural undermines security. And globalisation process to some people is violence itself or predominantly facilitates violence. But what is globalisation? And who controls this globalisation process?
    Globalisation as a concept becomes distinctive when it is used to designate ‘a trend whereby social relations become less tied to territorial geography. Global phenomenon are supra territorial: they can extend across widely dispersed locations simultaneously and can move between points anywhere on earth pretty much instantaneously. (Scholte, 1998).
    Globalisation as a contemporary process in creating a ‘new world order’ might be regarded as both positive and negative. Viewed from a neo-liberalism perspective, globalisation is a triumph of political liberalism and of the unfettered play of market forces and as likely to strengthen the economic and social basis for the unity of mankind by offering fresh possibilities for ‘new partnerships’ in the world order (Jinadu, 1999).
    On the other hand, from the Marxist perspective, contemporary globalisation depicts the dominant neo-liberal paradigm, a new form of imperialism in which global financial and corporate institutions dominate the global economic and political space. The advocates of such globalisation are ‘more concerned with the security of financial institutions and corporate interests than human security’ (Salim, 2000).
    Similarly, other critics of globalisation argue that it has imposed a violent, post-colonial imperialism; deepened social hierarchies (e.g. class, gender etc.); extinguished vulnerable cultures; undermined every fabric of community; massively aggravated ecological degradation; and compromised every claim to knowledge, scientific or otherwise (Axford, 1995; Osuji, 1997; Thomas and Wilkin, 1999).
    Africa as the whole and the Great Lakes region in particular has not escaped the imposition of neo-liberal globalisation, which Salim (1999) argues that, it has weakened the state’s resolve and capacity to intervene in the maintenance of peace and order. The emergence of warlords in Somalia, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Uganda, DRC and among other African states is testimony to debilitation of the African state as a provider of physical security and the emergence of private security arrangements. Similarly, advancement in information technology and communication has also facilitated the warlords in their quest for arms and ammunitions in their project of self enrichment. On the whole globalisation is process that is complicated. It cannot be stopped or reversed, but is can be manageable if appropriate responses are organised by those who are the likely losers in such process.
    The Nature and Characteristics of the states in the Great Lakes region.
    Strategic Environment Scenarios (SES).

    SES P-
    Politics & Governance R-
    Resource I-International S-
    Social Cohesion E-
    Economic M-
    Prosperous and Stable states in GLR P1
    Political stability R1
    Existence within a stabilizing region I1
    Constructively engaged S1
    General Improvement E1
    Steadily increasing, broad and sustainable economic improvement M1
    Constitutional, peaceful and stable
    States strive to consolidate P2
    Relative political stability R2
    Existence within a turbulent region I2
    Increasingly engaged S2
    Fluid, improving in many areas declining in some E2
    Gradual economic improvement M2
    Professionalising military with gradually improving civil-military relations
    States in disarray P3
    Political chaos R3
    Regional failure leading to competition over poor resources I3
    Relative isolation S3
    Disintegration and Chaos E3
    Economic collapse M3
    Disintegration and warlordism.
    Table 1 above identifies six key drives that guide the nature and analysis of the states in the Great Lakes region namely: P-Politics and governance; I-International partnerships and obligations; R-Regional cooperation and resource constraints; S-Social cohesion and human development; E-Economic production and globalisation; M-Military – civil relations.
    The states in the Great Lakes region that is Burundi, DRC, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda are oscillating between SES B and SES C or between P2, R2, I2, S2, M2 and P3, R3, I3, S3, E3, M3
    Globalisation and violence are likely to push all the states in the GLR to SES C if appropriate security and peace measures are not adhered to. Here, I have in mind the Lusaka Peace Accord.
    But what are the factors that have led to the emergence of the new forms of violence in the Great Lakes region? To answer this question, we need to focus both at domestic and global environments.
    Domestic Context
    The wars of liberation in Southern Africa initiated a culture of revolutionary violence as a process to destroy the colonial state and build a new state based on African interests. Quite a number of people ideologically became committed to the use of violence to change a social and political order that is not agreeable to them.
    The Great Lakes region has also witnessed civil wars particularly in Burundi, Rwanda, DRC and Uganda, with one group challenging the other to control the state. The wars have attracted a series of armed interventions in the name of restoring regional stability, preventing genocide, state security and so on. These interventions have created or facilitated the militarisation of the region through training and arming war lords.
    In some states like Uganda and Burundi the coups de’tat led to the breakdown of military armories where weapons found their way to the land of communities. The acquiring of firearms by the Karamajong in Uganda dates back to 1979 war and the subsequent coups d’etat. Cattle rustling which was traditionally carried out by use of spears and Machets is now done by use of AK-47 rifle. The coups in Burundi have also had a similar effect of proliferation of weapons to the communities that have felt the sense of self defence and preservation. Some warlords are not interested in peace, the more they stay in the jungles, the richer they become through exploitation of minerals, timber and drug trafficking. These war lords have links with multinational companies with vast experience in business looting and plunder.
    Therefore, the post-colonial militarisation in Africa and the Great Lakes region in particular partly explains the opening wage for the emergence of new forms of violence.
    The Global Context
    The end of cold war seem to have affected and perhaps led to the breakdown of the system of arms supply in the international system. Small and light weapons are easily sold on the black market. Even large military equipments like MIG-24 fighter aircraft from the former Soviet Republics have found their way to Uganda and Rwanda.
    Similarly, countries like South Africa which originally were isolated are now supplying large quantities of arms and ammunitions to the Great Lakes region. It is normal to find war lords in DRC with anti-aircraft guns, artillery support weapons like the Mamba, anti-armour weapons like RPG-7Bs and 82mm recoilless guns.
    Furthermore, weapons from previous wars supported by the super powers during the cold war have found their way to the Great Lakes region. The war between MPLA and UNITA in Angola, FLERIMO and RENAMO in Mozambique are cases in point.
    Therefore, one negative aspect of globalisation has been the weakening of the capacity of the state to provide human security and easy proliferation of weapons and ammunitions to those groups that aspire to acquire political power by capturing the state, which is seen as an instrument of allocation of resources.
    In summary the states in the Great Lakes region are characteristically marginal states economically and geo-politically in the international system. They are relatively isolated. They are undergoing a comprehensive crisis ideologically, economically, and are socially fluid. The states are continuously facing the challenge from social movements, political parties in opposition to open the political space and democratise the society in general. The demand for democratisation and failure by the states to protect their citizens is pushing some groups to resort to violence in order to redeem themselves.
    Implications for peace and security
    The proliferation of weapons and the wars in the Great Lakes region have negatively affected all aspects of security and peace. Violence has escalated between rival war lords, ethnic groups and inter-state militaries. This situation has generated refugees and caused a humanitarian crisis in terms of relief in basic necessities of life. Some refugees have turned into ‘warrior communities’ because they belong to former armies like Rwandese Armed Forces (FAR).
    The wars in the region particularly the one in DRC has attracted other interests in form of interventions. Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Zimbabwe, Angola, Namibia and Chad have fought in DRC ostensibly to defend their territorial integrity or restore stability that is for the case of Rwanda and Uganda; and for the rest, they claimed to defend the sovereignty of DRC from the so ‘called aggressors’.
    As a result of the inter section of these interests pursued with the aid of violence and war, a number of war lords have emerged and many more are yet to be created. Indeed, violence has been internationalised and there is a possibility of the region sliding further to chaos. The security council of the UN has not put in adequate resources for a peace keeping force in the region. This is important because, the African initiative through the Lusaka Accord lacks the financial resources to be implemented fully.
    The Challenge
    How can we transform the culture of violence to a culture of peace and security? How can the states of the Great Lakes region avoid moving further to Strategic Environment Scenario C and move to Strategic Environment Scenario A as illustrated earlier in Table 1?
    The dominant neo-liberal paradigm in the world today emphasises the limited role of the state in both national and international political economy. This is compounded by the disappointment people have had from the state, which was believed to carry a historical mission of liberating productive forces of society (at least from the Marxists and neo-Marxists).
    However, the neo-liberal globalisation has not effectively provided opportunities to the Third World countries as it claims. Therefore, some people believe, that the role of state should be revisited. There is need to rethink, restructure or revitalise the state.
    Even the torch bearers of neo-liberalism particularly the donors have accepted that a well functioning state – that can collect taxes, provide law and order, provide basic needs to the people is a pre-requisite for a free market. This is why the concepts of good governance, accountability and democratisation are high up on their agenda. It appears therefore, that there is consensus that the African state should be reconstructed in its relation with the citizens and how resources are allocated. A transparent allocation of resources, followed by accountability and freedom of the citizens to participate in decision making seems to be attractive to avoid violent means.
    The statist school in the 1970s emphasised that power holders have created structures of domination that enable them to misuse their offices to reap personal gains at the expense of the pressing needs of the bulk of population. If Africa is undergoing a process of impoverishment, then leaders of the new states bear much of the blame for this state of affairs (Chazan, et al. 1988:20).
    What the statist school raises, is the question of leadership of a state that is to be revitalised. Responsible leadership is important in designing appropriate responses to neo-liberalism globalisation. The Great Lakes region needs leadership that advocates and works for social globalisation, that is an inclusive process in which the gains made through global economic and social and political interactions are shared by the global citizenry, particularly the vulnerable, the marginalised and the poor. Social globalisation would then mean a humane globalisation that does not sacrifice those in need for satisfying the needs of those without loyalty to locality and the welfare of the vulnerable groups (Salim, 2000).
    Where is the starting point?
    In the Great Lakes region, the Ugandan experience seems to have inspired other revolutionaries. Attempts are being made to reconstruct the state on new terms with a new agenda.
    Uganda is tapping the positive aspects of neo-liberal globalisation while at the same time building a functioning and responsive state to its citizens. The new agenda includes popular participation of the citizens in their governance through; a decentralised system of local government; a defence reform programme preceded by a defence review; human resource development (particularly universal primary education,) a mixed economy approach and commitment to regional and International peace initiatives.
    Professionalisation of the army is expected to lead to control of spread of weapons, demobilisation and downsizing the military budget under the supervision of civil authority. It is important, therefore, to support a programme that will lead to demilitarisation of our societies, if we are to develop a culture of peace and security. The international community though the UN should also support such initiatives not only through resolutions but through action and material support.
    The paper argues that violence in the Great Lakes region is not a new phenomenon, but the contemporary situation in the region has produced new forms of violence characterised by competing war lords and exploitation of natural resources by multinational corporate business enterprises.
    The states in the Great Lakes region are characterised by weak economies, weak institutions of governance and refugees. Globalisation particularly neo-liberal globalisation has facilitated the weakening of these states. Furthermore, globalisation has enabled proliferation of weapons from the manufacturers to the war lords and the governments in the region. The uncontrolled movement of weapons from earlier wars of liberation, proxy wars fought during the cold war period have contributed to the militarisation of the communities in the region.
    The paper proposes that there is need to rethink the African state. The state should be reconstructed in relation to its citizens and how resources are allocated. The paper emphasises the role of responsible leadership in the process of revitalising the state. One of the key areas that needs attention is the defense sector. This requires a comprehensive review and reform programme that will among other things demobilise the armed forces and reduce defence budgets. In short, professionalise the army and delimitarise the societies in the Great Lakes region for peace and security to prevail.
    Axford, B (1995), The Global System: Economics, Politics and Culture. Cambridge, Polity Press.
    Baldwin, D.A. (1997), ‘The Concept of Security’ in Review of International studies 23(1), 5-26
    Boolt, K (1991), ‘Strategy and Emancipation’, in Review of International Studies, 17(4), 3130326.
    Buzan, Barry, O. Waever and J. de Wilde (1998), Security A New Framework for Analysis, London, Lynne Rienner Publishers,
    Chazan, Naomi et al. (1988), Politics and Society in Contemporary Africa. Boulder, Colorado, Lynne Rienner Publishers.
    Frantz, Fanon (1963), The Wretched of the Earth. London, Penguin Books.
    Galtung, J. (1988), Transarmament and the Cold War: Peace Research and the Peace Movement. Copenhagen, Christian Ejlers.
    Garver, N. ‘What Violence Is’, The Nation. No. 209, 24 June 1968.
    Graham, David. T and Nana Poku (2000), Migration, Globalisation and Human Security. NewYork, Rutledge.
    Jinadu, Adele, L (1999), The Globalisation of Political Science: An African Perspective. A Paper presented at the plenary session at the 12th Biennal Congress of the African Association of Political Science (AAPS) 22-25 June, Dakar, Senegal.
    Kim, S (1984), `Global violence and just world order’ in Journal of Peace Research, 21
    Osuju, L (1997), ‘Structural Adjustment and Persistence of Economic Crisis in Africa’, in F. Edho (ed), Globalisation and the New World Order: Promises, Problems and Prospects for Africa in the 21 Century. Westport, Praeger.
    Salim, Mohamed, M.A. (2000), Globalisation and Human Insecurity in Africa. A paper presented at the plenary session at the Sixth Congress of the Organisation for Social Science Research in Eastern and Southern Africa (OSSREA), 24-28 April Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Scholle, Jan Aart (1998), Globalisation. A Paper presented at the opening of the 1998 Diploma programme at Institute of Social Studies, The Hague.
    South Africa White Paper on Defence 1996.
    Thomas, C. and P. Wilkin (eds), (1999), ‘Introduction’ in Human Security in the New World order: The African Experience. London, Lynne Rienner.

    Introduction 1.1 Creating democratic processes and procedures1.2 State of information and communication infrastructure 2. ICT needs in Africa of communities3. Opportunities and challenges3.1 Examples of opportunities3.1.1 Agriculture and Food Security3.1.2 Health3.1.3 Education3.1.4 Governance3.1.5 Income generation3.1.6 Media3.2 Challenges3.2.1 Women 3.2.2 Language & Culture3.2.3 Content3.2.3.1 Media content3.2.3.2 Other forms of African content3.2.4 Training Training rural communities4. Success Stories5. Policy Issues5.1 Universal Access/Service5.2 Forging partnerships5.3 Regional Cooperation6. Conclusions6.1 Summary of key policy considerations7. Some recommendations7.1 Some indicators for measuring access
    The information revolution is calling for new imperatives in the way in which people throughout the world mobilize and utilize communication resources. This paper assesses the issues surrounding the democratization of access to the information society in Africa and attempts to offer strategies for harnessing information and communication technologies in support of development initiatives with particular emphasis on access for rural communities.
    1. Democratizing Access to the Information Society: Introduction
    Democratization is a process through which the establishment of democratic systems, principles and values are instituted in society for greater participation of people in the processes of political, economic, social and cultural governance. Popular participation, freedom of expression, the rule of law, respect for economic, socio-cultural, political and human rights are just some of the hallmarks of such a process. It is also an emerging structural process in many African countries, which needs to be understood and nurtured in the interest of strengthening intrinsic democratic culture. To a great extent, democratizing access to the information society is dependent on the degree of democratic culture that exists in societies in which citizens become full participants in the decision-making, development, application and evaluation of the deployment of ICTs. Where possible, the process also entails building and developing a citizenry empowered to fully utilize ICTs for basic human development, especially within the current context of the information revolution.
    The combination of old and new information and communication technologies of broadcasting, telecommunications, the Internet, CD-ROM, satellite and cable are creating a plethora of applications that promote interactive learning. Characteristically, the availability of information is making the application of participatory communications ever more possible for target beneficiaries.
    Approximately a decade ago, governments dominated (and in some cases monopolized) all sectors of society, including the provision and delivery of information. Today, African societies have achieved significant measures of political, economic and social reforms and attempts at economic liberalization, democratic governance and the opening up of communications (press, broadcasting and telecommunications) all signify such changes. The restructuring of telecommunications and the opening up of the airwaves has stimulated unprecedented growth, ushering a rare culture of communications through cellular telephony, public payphones and the emergence of private/independent broadcasting stations in many cities and towns of the continent.
    Six years ago, there were only a couple of newspapers in Tanzania, for instance. Currently, there are approximately 60 newspapers, a plethora of both TV and radio stations across the country, and there is also better access to mobile telephony and a growing number of Internet Service Providers (ISPs). In Ghana, the proliferation of FM private stations and the increasing numbers of phone-in programmes have created a better climate for freedom of expression, contributing to the development of a more open society and building the basis for popular participation in public issues. Although the potential of ICTs could flourish in more open and plural societies, its applications are also tools for enhancing the culture of democratization that is often elusive in some countries.
    Ultimately, the challenges facing African countries in achieving a culture of democratized access to the information society goes far beyond passing legislation or introducing a new policy but includes how participatory communication could become an inherent aspect of cultural identities in every society. Consequently, the questions that need to be answered are access for whom, for what, at what costs, where and how? Therefore, the continuum of participatory governance should begin by the policy maker asking the right questions and involving different actors with different skills and expertise to respond to the changing needs and contexts in African societies. However, in discussing democratizing access to the information society, focus will inevitably be on the grassroots and/or rural communities in relation to improving their standard of living.
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    1.1 Creating democratic processes and procedures
    There are no hard and fast rules for creating democratic culture but rather there should be equal levels of political commitment from the major actors that constitute the African society in entrenching certain values and principles in processes and procedures in public policy formulation and implementation. The use of current information and communication facilities in promoting the spirit of open and public debate is critical for developing democratic culture in African society. It is in this vein that radio, newspapers and television should become platforms for stimulating, sustaining and upholding such debate allowing a diversity of voices.
    Overall governments should provide the broad umbrella for national discourse and interaction on ICT by encouraging democratic participation in order to build consensus in society through participatory communication methods to promote ICT use for social transformation purposes. Even though liberalization of broadcasting and telecommunications in a number of countries did not offer much room for public consultation and participation, with the possible exception of South Africa, a participatory approach should be encouraged in the formulation and implementation processes of national policies. The advantage for governments and decision-makers with this approach is that it builds public confidence in government initiatives, encourages alliances between different interest groups in society and builds a bona fide critical mass through stakeholder’s coalitions. Popular participation in not only the policy arena but also in network design, deployment and ownership should include as many stakeholders for the full benefit of the end user. In so doing, any legislation on democratization procedures will be upheld and enforced because most people have an interest in the process, procedures and outcomes.
    While policy decisions should be based on negotiation and consultation with as many actors as possible, stakeholders should also develop strategies for engaging with governments and decision-makers to strengthen the emerging democratic culture in African countries. For civil society groups this entails, understanding the issues and problems with regard to access to information and communication resources in society and how coalitions could be built with the private sector, communities, public institutions and the governments to midwife and manage increased access to the information society.
    In ensuring a culture of democracy, there has to be a commitment to the coordination of the ICT initiatives in various sectors of the economy with an adequate ICT audit on current projects. The many fora organized by various international agencies, and the action plans that came out of these meetings aimed at kick-starting Africa’s information revolution, have still not galvanized sufficient momentum, even though civil society groups have taken the lead in fostering the use of ICTs. Generally speaking, pilot projects geared towards facilitating the development process and empowering citizens have so far been collaborations between civil society groups and international agencies.
    Awareness raising is important because some African intellectuals and policy makers question the potential of ICTs on a continent where people can neither read nor write and are consequently wary of possible harmful effects. This assertion has been backed up with claims that clean water, roads, provision of primary health care and schools are much more important for improving poor people’s lives than providing them with computers and access to data networks. It is also felt that the information available through networks produced in the North spread Western values and culture, which threaten the survival of local culture.
    Whilst these notions may be true, those who realize the potential benefits of the information society know that telecommunication infrastructure provides the basis for effective ICT utilization and is just as important as roads. Access to telephones and faxes reduce the need for people to travel and help break isolation. With communication comes the improvement in efficiency in transportation, which in turn reduces costs, improves availability of essential goods and contributes to improving living conditions. In some cases, it may also contribute to saving lives during disasters and reduces their harmful consequences. Whilst it may take years to build roads in places with difficult terrain, ICTs could provide access in a relatively short time to very remote and isolated areas and reduce drastically the need for unwarranted travel.
    South African politicians and decision-makers have taken a leadership role in supporting Africa’s need to develop coherent strategies in deploying information and communication technologies. During Africa Telecoms ’98, in Johannesburg, in May 1998, the then minister for Posts and Telecommunications, Jay Naidoo stated: "African leadership must confront a major indictment against us. There are 700 million people on the continent and only 12 million have access to a telephone, five million in South Africa alone. A key policy requirement is the achievement of a national communications infrastructure, essential for social and economic activity. This is important in a world where reliable and speedy communication is vital to the success of rapidly globalizing trade, industry and services". The potential impact of ICTs ultimately rests on external and internal factors facilitating or impeding accessibility and use.
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    1.2 The state of information and communication infrastructure
    Despite the fact that African countries are expanding and extending communication systems, the current state of infrastructure is still a major problem and remains a threat to the continent’s full participation in the information society. Statistics reveal that over 80% of the world’s population lacks minimally efficient telecommunication facilities, the majority of which is in Africa and over 40 of the poorest countries in the world – 35 of them in Africa – have less than one telephone to 100 inhabitants. Cash-strapped national treasuries and limited investment opportunities are two major factors reducing rapid infrastructure development. In comparison, between1990-1995 China added nearly 34 million main telephone lines or 20% of the United States level accumulated over one century of development. The penalty of slow growth on a low base for Sub-Saharan Africa is that it will take over a century for it to reach the 1995 level of Ireland. (Mansell & Wehn: 1998, 24/5)
    Nevertheless, despite severe constraints in telecommunication and infrastructure development, the most dynamic telecommunication market is the Internet, which is growing rapidly. As a result, the majority of African countries are now linked to the Internet (Figure 1) even though Arabic-speaking countries and South Africa were the early Internet adopters.
    The transformation in connectivity has been phenomenal where a number of Internet hosts grew from 7,800 in July 1998 to 10,703 in January 1999. There are now approximately 26 countries with 1000 or more dialup subscribers, but only 9 countries with 5000 or more – Egypt, Kenya, Ghana, Mozambique, South Africa, Tunisia, Uganda and Zimbabwe. However, Internet prospects on the continent would definitely change when the technology takes off in Nigeria. With a fifth of sub-Sahara Africa’s population, Nigeria has been one of the slumbering giants of African Internet/ICT development, which until mid-’96 had a few dialup email providers and a couple of full ISPs operating on very low bandwidth links. Nigerian Telecommunications (Nitel) has now established a POP in Lagos with a 2MB link to Global One in the US and has put POPs in four other cities.
    Even so, broadcasting provides a basic information infrastructure for Africa’s entry into the information society. Access to radio and television is by far greater (per capita) than access to newspapers, telephones or even computers and this trend will continue. In 1985, there were no fewer than 10 independent stations in all of Africa. With the emergence of independent radio stations, the advent in particular of community radio stations, there is recognition of the far-reaching impact of radio. The advantage that a new technology such as the Internet has over older technologies such as radio, newspapers, and video is that it is the first media tool that allows for users to send, receive, narrowcast or broadcast their own information, making it a natural democratizing tool. Consequently, countries should examine how older forms of technologies can interface with new technologies to deepen access for the majority of people.
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    2. ICT needs in Africa
    While the issues around democratizing access to the information society are dependent on wider socio-economic and socio-political concerns, if left unchecked, the information economy will overwhelmingly be urban-biased catering for the affluent segment of society. It can be argued that the advent of ICTs is creating two very broad social groups in society: ‘the information rich’ and ‘the information poor’, of which the latter group would overwhelmingly be dominated by rural and low-income communities.
    ICTs risk benefiting only a fraction of the population in the higher income strata, with higher levels of education, and with attitudes that favor modern societal options over traditional practices. If the macro elements that create social inequalities are not taken into consideration in the introduction and use of ICTs as tools for development, new gaps between the haves and the have-nots of information are likely to emerge within societies. (Morales_Gomez & Melesse; 1998) This is because, for the majority of the African people depending on incomes below $25 per month, affording the ICT services would be near impossible. Consequently the existing institutions such as churches, schools, hospitals, libraries, community centers, telecentres, post offices and markets can be used as public access points (PAPs) for accessing information and related resources.
    The 1998 UNDP Human Development Report, states that ICT markets "can go too far and force out the non-market activities that are so vital for human development and argues that "the network society is creating parallel communication systems: one for those with income and education; the other for those without connections, blocked by high barriers of time, cost and uncertainty and dependent on outdated information." The report states that the Internet benefits the relatively well off and the educated: 88 percent of users live in industrialized countries with just 17 per cent of the world's population.
    Issues determining access to ICTs and their benefits need to be examined carefully if these technologies are to be meaningful to the poor and the marginalized or even assist displaced people and the handicapped. In rural community centers, or in schools where teachers are poorly trained and underpaid, and where students lack basic books, access becomes more than having a TV or a computer at home, and hence the need for a broader socio-economic perspective.
    2.1 Identifying needs of communities
    There are very few information needs assessments of different social classes in Africa. However, it is becoming an important aspect to the process of democratizing access to the information society, so as to determine the type of information needed for particular social groups (rural, urban, refugees, women, youth, deaf, etc), taking into account the issue of language, format and appropriate technology. Such assessments should provide a framework for policymakers on how to institute policies that enable various societal groups to access the information society and on what terms. At the same time, network designers need such information for building specific applications for particular and even distinct social groups. Due to the fact that oral tradition is a strong form of communication culture in Africa, communities need to be involved in the development of specialized applications, which could enhance indigenous knowledge and preserve local languages and identities.
    Studies on local communication patterns and processes are essential for ICT development to ensure appropriate applications of technology and content and for the harmonization and integration of existing communication channels. This includes an understanding of the culture of local populations, where and how people communicate, what is communicated and by whom, so that gaps based on gender can be addressed for example. One particular methodology in ensuring people’s participation in development projects is the use of participatory needs assessments often undertaken to identify the information needs of local populations and where possible using participatory rural appraisal techniques.
    Consequently, ICT needs of different social groups should be addressed in the context of ownership, empowerment, access and active participation by the beneficiaries themselves.
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    3. Opportunities and challenges in democratizing access to the information society
    Increasingly, the democratic process in Africa is calling for more plural and open societies, whereby different groups could play a more challenging role in public decision-making. This is a crucial step to people’s participation because unless decisions which affect peoples lives are subject to scrutiny by those they affect, they are unlikely to be sustainable. The very first step towards democratizing access to the information society is to subject as many aspects as possible of policy-making to popular participatory processes for optimal and effective outcomes. The advantage of such a process enables full optimization of the opportunities as well as better strategies to grapple with the challenges.
    The opportunities that the information societies could offer are increasingly becoming glaring. The UN Secretary-General, Kofi Annan stated during his opening speech at the Global Knowledge Conference (GK ’97) in Toronto, in June 1997 that: "Recent developments in the field of communication and information technology are indeed revolutionary in nature. Information and knowledge are expanding in quantity and accessibility. In many fields, future decision-makers will be presented with unprecedented new tools for development. In such fields as agriculture, health, education, human resources and environmental management, or transport and business development, the consequences really could be revolutionary.
    Public services such as education, health care and other social amenities are non-existent in most rural areas, and even where they exist, government cut backs have definitely reduced such services to a minimum. Through ICTs, the efficiency (and consequently the impacts) of public services could be increased, depending on the type of ICT(s) application used. Access to the rapidly increasing, electronically stored information and knowledge resources in the field of health and education, as well as basic hygiene, literacy, water management and environment protection could enhance access to basic services. As a result, various information-related activities using radio communications, satellite, cable, CD-ROMs and the Internet are being actively deployed for promoting a variety of social services.
    In some cases, the integration of information services is leading to the establishment of telecentres through which communication services could be dispensed under one roof. Consequently, a telecentre is likely to be a radio station, telephone and fax bureau, provide local bulletins, document searches on demand, video libraries for entertainment and education, health and nutrition training, and a post office. The telecentre is increasing representing the vehicle for democratizing access to the information society for the urban low-income and rural communities. Another similar concept is the Multipurpose Community Telecentre (MCT), which is also being promoted for open and flexible learning. Within the UN System-wide Special Initiative on Africa, UNESCO (under the DANIDA Funds-in-Trust programme) has teamed up with IDRC and the ITU to sponsor pilot MCTs in rural communities of five least developed African countries. Several other partners (British Council, FAO, UNDP, WHO) are participating in the MCT consortium supporting these projects, which are based in:
    Mali (in Timbuktu, a regional capital and UNESCO World Heritage site at the edge of the desert north of the country);
    Uganda (in Nakaseke, a village 50 km. north of Kampala), which started in 1998;
    Benin (in Malanville, a small city in the far north of the country),
    Mozambique (Maniça and Namaacha, small towns respectively about 70 and 50 km. from Maputo);
    Tanzania (in Sengerema, a small town on Lake Victoria) starting this year.
    In Egypt, the government has established more than 1300 information support centres and units throughout the country, serving the same kind of purpose as telecentres, and Technology Access Community Centres (TACCs) are being established, aimed at empowering and supporting community utilization of ICTs.
    Other forms of community empowerment through the use of ICTs include the introduction of community radio in a number of countries including South Africa (which has approximately 100), Mali, Burkina Faso, Namibia, Mozambique and Senegal.

    3.1 Examples of opportunities
    The advent of the information society is not only re-defining the role of communications in society, but is also speeding up emerging forms of participatory communications. This is precipitating a two-way communication based on exchange of ideas and information to improve the lives of people in various communities. In particular, the potential role of the Internet (and electronic communication such as e-mail) as a democratic tool could go a long way in empowering communities.
    3.1.1 Agriculture and Food Security
    African countries confront many significant political, economic, social and environmental constraints to increased food production. One major reason is that food production continues to grow more slowly than population, and, in contrast to every other region of the world, per capita food production has declined since the 1970s. It is estimated that 40% of the total population of sub-Saharan Africa goes hungry, and the figure will increase to 50% by the year 2000. Many of Africa’s agricultural and rural development problems have been related to misguided, weak institutions and a lack of well-trained human resources. A critical factor in meeting the challenge of ensuring food security in Africa is human resource development through knowledge building and information sharing, of which communication technologies are central to the process.
    According to the UN specialized agency, the Food and Agricultural Organization, information, education and training allow farmers to make use of new farming knowledge and technologies. Research shows that both formal education and non-formal training have a substantial effect on agricultural productivity. An FAO study conducted in Nigeria in 1992 found that an increase in the average education of farmers by one year increased the value-added to agricultural production by 24%. In Burkina Faso, a 1993 study found that crop yields were 25 to 30% higher for farmers who participated in training programmes than those who did not participate.
    Consequently, a decisive role can be played by communication technologies in promoting human capacity development for food security in Africa. Experience demonstrates that sustainable development is based less on material inputs (e.g. seeds and fertilizer) than on the people involved in their use. Investments in scientific and material inputs for agricultural production bear little fruit without parallel investments in people. Therefore, ICTs are powerful tools for informing people and providing them with the knowledge and skills they need to put agricultural science and production inputs to best use.
    The Ghana Agricultural Information Network System (GAINS), is a database network for agriculture researchers and extension officers on all agricultural research conducted in the country. Although this system is in existence, updates are infrequent.
    Agriculture Ministries need to identify ways of developing expertise in digital databases and networks for providing information to researchers, extension officers, etc. In addition extension officers should be trained to repackage information for farmers in local languages.
    3.1.2 Health
    One of the visible advantages of the information era is that ICT projects in Africa have paid attention to the needs of health researchers and professionals who require access to up-to-date research and reference material. Technologies such as satellites and lately the Internet have also afforded health workers rapid information exchange, conferencing, distance learning, as well as access to urgent advice and diagnostic assistance. SatelLife’s HealthNet launched two small satellites, HealthSat I (launched in 1991) and HealthSat II (launched in 1993), and currently use the Internet to serve approximately 4,000 health care workers in more than 30 countries world-wide.
    Tanzanian Doctors turn to cyberspace for help!The Muhimbili Medical Center in Dar es Salaam, the capital of Tanzania, has turned to cyberspace to help bring down the high mortality rates among its pediatric burn patients. Like many health-care facilities in poor and isolated regions, the Muhimbili center now has the opportunity to involve the world's medical community in its struggle to prevent and treat illness and injury. Through HealthNet, a satellite-based network for health workers, the Health Foundation in New York learned of the Muhimbili’s particular needs and responded by sending a free shipment of phenytoin, a drug that reduces pain and promotes healing of burn wounds. The Muhimbili center also relies on HealthNet for consultations with specialists. In a recent book, The Coming Plague: Newly Emerging Diseases in a World Out of Balance, author Laurie Garrett writes that: "For the first time, physicians in the developing countries could consult colleagues in neighboring nations or medical libraries and data banks to help solve puzzling cases and alert one another to disease outbreaks."
    Ministries of Health could identify ways of introducing or upgrading communication facilities for health care institutions and consider using low-cost methods such as e-mail, radio stations or radiocommunication which can save lives, reduce isolation and enable doctors to make better, more informed decisions.
    3.1.3 Education
    To respond to the challenges and crisis facing education and learning in Africa, there is a need to stimulate change and create learning environments that are more meaningful and responsive to the localised and specific needs of learners. Teachers and learners, could obtain material whenever required, through the use of radio, television, video, film and newer technologies, which could transform the education sector in many ways and enable people to develop new skills in education and learning. Apart from the application of newer technologies to learning, older forms of communication have also been successfully used in some areas. In Latin America, the Roman Catholic Church introduced the concept of ‘radio schools’, where communities received education through programmes made by local radio stations.
    Saudi Arabia provides a good example of how ICTs are being used in distance learning for women. The increased opportunities for women in Saudi Arabia to enter the work force has created a need to develop IT skills to advance themselves in managerial and decision-making levels. A pilot project aims to empower professional women in Saudi Arabia with the requisite skills and tools to perform better, more productively and to advance professionally. Through the Internet students can have access to the best trainers and to well-tailored course materials without being constrained by the non-availability of certain education locally, or by societal constraints.
    The UNESCO sponsored Learning Networks for African Teachers (LNAT) project uses Internet based approaches to help teachers to become better learners and teachers. LNAT is being implemented in Zimbabwe (see box) and Senegal with emerging activities in Namibia. A pilot activity in Nigeria has been proposed, involving 4-6 Teacher Training Colleges in co-operation with the Federal Ministry of Education, the National Training Institute and the Nigerian Board for Technical Education.
    Learning Without Frontiers Programme - ZimbabweIn April 1997, UNESCO with support from Danida provided five teacher training colleges in the Zimbabwean cities of Mutare, Harare, Gweru, Masvingo and Bulawayo each with one computer and a year subscription to one of the Internet service providers in the country. The aim was to use existing Internet technology to empower teacher-training colleges to contribute to educational reform, upgrade teacher IT skills and establish resource centres for learning material. The immediate target of this network was to establish a group of teacher trainers, who could share the many small and bigger problems that the different schools faced in the startup phase. Also teachers were encouraged to develop small-scale activities, among Zimbabwean colleagues, with student teachers, with colleagues or experts oversee, to exploit the Internet as a means of communication and as a rich resource of teaching and learning resources.However, there have been problems with hardware and connectivity (poor, unreliable service from computer suppliers, Internet service providers and the public telecommunications company. Unforeseen difficulties in use of basic software occurred and lack of experience with computers in general. The impact of technologies regarding innovations in education depends on attitudes, expectations, organization and management. High expectations for ICT applications may cause disappointment among their users, if they do not take full account of the actual educational contexts including, for example, untrained users, unreliable supply of electricity, and, more importantly, educational messages that do not meet the standards of quality and relevance.
    Another regional project include, the Global Education Network for Africa (GENA), which is a shared national programming for broadcasting distance education. The aim is to establish a network to allow public broadcasters to share the cost of accessing educational programming. Initial participating countries are Kenya, Namibia, Swaziland, Uganda and Tanzania which broadcast GENA programmes at set times each day.
    Satellite University in UgandaA new satellite university education system is starting in the year 2000, which is an upgraded form of distance learning provided through Makerere University in Kampala. Twenty sites will be established around the country so that students do not have to travel long distances to Kampala for their university education, when they can simultaneously participate in lectures and ask question through satellite technology. One inherent benefit of this new project is that the satellite university will attract fewer fees than the current university does.
    Education ministries should develop policies to strengthen the use of ICTs in the education sector in teaching and learning, strengthening delivery of learning materials as well as commissioning education software in these areas. Also efforts are needed to reduce Africa’s dependence on imported training materials that do no meet the local needs. Specific efforts should be made to provide practical information sources and to close the resource gap by making resources electronically available, especially for schools, universities and research centres.
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    3.1.4 Governance
    Poor networks and infrastructure exacerbate the difficulties of communication between citizens and governments in many parts of the world. Therefore, ICTs as tools for governance can make a difference to how citizens: 1) access government information; (2) access government services and 3) enhance citizens’ participation in the governance process.
    In Uganda, the Forum for Women in Democracy (FOWODE) accesses critical and relevant information on the Internet for women Parliamentarians, which make a difference to their contributions in Parliament. With the use of the Internet and email resources such as discussion groups and newsgroups, FOWODE is able to link up with organizations in the region and participate in discussions regarding critical regional issues keeping MPs informed about regional dynamics and politics. Although most FOWODE members have received basic computer training skills, programme officers act as ‘information brokers’ and provide the research services for requests from MPs on specific issues.
    Governments in many countries are the largest consumers of IT goods and services and ICTs are pioneering new relationships between governments and citizens ushering in a culture of participation (for citizens) and efficiency (for governments). Through ICTs, Brazil for instance, is able to determine its cash and foreign exchange positions nightly, and Egypt’s Ministry of Finance manages all of its affairs with locally developed software. The South African government through a comprehensive database can now reconcile housing applicants from region to region, spotting double applications and eliminating chances of fraudulent housing claims. Increasingly, government web sites are promoting tourism and culture so as to attract foreign investments and strengthen trade links.
    The governments of Angola, Egypt, Ghana, Gabon, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Senegal, South Africa, Togo, Tunisia and Zambia all have web sites. The South African Government’s web site provides detailed information on the various levels of government, departments and their activities, documents and reports, ministers' speeches and legislation as well as the new constitution adopted in 1996. Regional governments of South Africa have sites detailing their municipal services, tenders and development projects. The regional administrations of Ghana are also making a presence on the Internet to promote investments, tourism and local entrepreneurs. African Parliaments are also beginning to register their presence, and Uganda and South Africa have taken the lead.
    Using state media for democratic developmentProducers of Kyrgyz Teleradio Corporation (KTC) were trained to develop a participatory methodology in which radio documentaries could be used to communicate the concerns of local people to decision-makers in the Kyrgz government. The documentaries supported democratic development by providing a forum for ordinary citizens to express their opinions on local issues. Government officials, by listening and responding to the concerns expressed in the documents, also became familiar with a fundamental democratic principle – that is- the concept that state employed officials should respond to the needs of their constituents, according to local viewpoints when they define development agenda and set government priorities.
    At a time when many governments are decentralizing their local government operations ICTs could further strengthen these efforts to enable citizens – especially those in rural and remote areas break through the feeling of isolation. Local government authorities could enhance citizen participation. As the level of government closest to the citizen, they could expedite access to adequate and reliable government information and promote equitable and affordable participation in government decision-making. Regional intergovernmental agencies such as SADC and COMESA have web sites with fairly extensive information on their activities and member states.
    PITS in South AfricaA new scheme to provide Public Information Terminals (PITs) providing 24-hour-access to government departments was launched in Johannesburg. The scheme is as a result of research by the Department of Communications where, computers can be used for time-consuming tasks as applying for driving licenses and passports, or even government tenders. According to Andile Ngcaba, director-general of South Africa's Department of Communications, who conceived of the project, the idea of PITs are to ease government bureaucracies, backlogs in medical care, as well as provide other valuable government information usually not found, and offer citizens access to the Internet, e-mail and tele-shopping. So far five prototype terminals, which will be located in post offices, supermarkets and other public places, have been built at a cost of $40,000 per unit.
    African governments should invest in a research and development (R & D) especially in the design of applications relevant to local conditions for enhancing both national and local government services.
    3.1.5 Income Generation
    ICTs are also creating new markets and reinforcing old ones for goods and services, offering enormous trading potential for entrepreneurs. According to Prof. Swasti Mitter, "the most significant benefit that ICTs have brought to poorer women is in the area of low-cost self-employment and entrepreneurship. In Bangladesh, the Grameen Bank wants to use its network of ’branches’ to launch the Grameen Phone, which hopes to provide low-cost telephony to every village in Bangladesh. As a result, many rural women in Bangladesh own and run local businesses where they are offered loans to buy cellular phones to rent to other villagers on a commercial basis. This type of business not only provides communication access to some of the poorest people in the country but also enables women earn extra income for their families.
    The opportunities for ICTs to provide new trading frontiers for cottage, small and medium-scale enterprises in the developing world is undoubtedly on the increase. Today, artisans and peasants from the developing world sell their products over the Internet. In Africa too, Tuaregs in Niger are using the Internet to sell their crafts worldwide. These products appear alongside many other African cultural products in a "cybermall" hosted by a Canadian charity, which helps developing countries promote exports and trade.
    African Textile Trade on the InternetThe Adire African Textiles site was the first online gallery of textiles. Orders can be placed for traditional African hand-woven textiles such as: Adire and Aso-Oke (made by the Yoruba people of Nigeria), Adinkra and Kente (from Ghana), Bogolan (Mali), as well as Kuba (Democratic Republic of Congo). Nigerian Fabrics and Fashions This web site is dedicated to Nigerian culture and fashion and has various collections. "The Ifeyemi Collection", is the latest, which is in three categories: Traditional African which consist of the traditional Nigerian wrap sets and Agbadas made from popular fabrics like Aso Oke (hand woven cotton fabric), George, Lace, and Jacquard. Contemporary African Afrocentric, which utilizes western silhouettes and forms along with traditional African embroidery, patterns to create contemporary African styles. The Classical African draws from a classical heritage dating back to the pyramids, these styles drape and flow elegantly.
    In Ghana, the Network Computer Systems (NCS), a private ISP has an Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) network service. This service, the first in West Africa, is being implemented in collaboration with General Electric Information Services and the International Finance Corporation (IFC). General Electric Information Services operates the biggest EDI network in the world, thus opening up the Ghanaian business community to trading partners worldwide. EDI enables inter-business electronic exchange of documents in a standard format and include invoices, purchase orders, bills of laden, etc.
    At the international level, UNCTAD's Global Trade Point Network, launched in October 1994 aims at broadening participation in global trade, in particular, of small and medium-scale enterprises in developing countries by lowering transaction costs and promoting effective trade practices. The aim is to establish and network shared facilities ("Trade Points") where local traders can access information on trade and investment opportunities, complete transactions electronically (including customs, freight, banking, insurance, etc.). In July 1996 there were 37 Trade Points established at different levels of operation, four of these are in Africa, based in Cairo, Tunis, Dakar and Harare. Feasibility studies are ongoing in a number of other countries, including Algeria, Cameroon, Cote d' Ivoire, Kenya, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia and Zambia.
    African governments should establish committees to facilitate national and regional electronic commerce through regional bodies, such as ECOWAS, SADC, the East African Community, COMESA.
    Income-generation through telecentres in UgandaThrough the Acacia Initiative of the Canadian International Development Research Center (IDRC), and the Uganda National Council for Science and Technology (UNCST) telecentres have been introduced into various rural communities. One of the communities, Nabweru, currently has just one phone line serving a district of 58,000 people and is typical of communications access outside the capital - there are 70,000 telephone lines in the whole of Uganda, almost three quarters of which serve subscribers in Kampala. The telecentre, which will include 8-10 telephone lines, promises to transform the communications opportunities for people in the district. Some comments by members of the community underscores the importance of communication in the rural setting:Haji Sulaiman Mulindwa, a local chief and farmer says: "This center will help our people because they lack information about producer prices and people will get information on agriculture, education, the nutrition of children and so on - we also expect the center to generate money," Namubiru Kyotolye, an entrepreneur: "It will help us save time, solve our problems and make appointments so that we don't go somewhere and find no one there". Sulaiman Kilyabia, a farmer: "The center will bring information about better agricultural practices. I want higher yields so that I can earn money to send my children to school". Semanda Umaru, a street hawker: "We want to learn this technology. If we get a communications center, it could create job opportunities in our area and it can help us to get information about jobs". Elizabeth Amuto, a Nabweru community development officer says: "Lack of information has hampered women's ability to maximize their income-generating potential. Currently, people have to go to Kampala for information. We have plenty of women's projects in this area but many remote villages can't get information on when there is an exhibition where they can bring their handicrafts to sell".
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    3.1.6 Media
    The impact of ICTs on the media has been phenomenal and presents interesting opportunities as well as challenges to the media. One radical change is that traditional forms of production have been altered by low costs in the use of information and communication technologies thus enabling almost anyone with access to a computer to become a purveyor of information. Through electronic versions of newspapers, for instance, there is a new form of democracy emerging, where Africans in the Diaspora can follow national events in their countries through Internet versions of local newspapers and send their contributions. Local radio and TV stations in Senegal, Ghana, South Africa and Uganda can be heard on the Internet. The media were the first significant contributors to African content on the worldwide web. Through web-casting and publishing Diaspora around the world are now able to tune in via the Internet to their hometown radio stations, and read the daily newspapers. Electronic publishing today enables scientists, researchers, and academics to contribute to journals and periodicals.
    The combination of ICTs with traditional forms of media means that communication is no longer seen as simply a top-down flow of information, exemplified by the delivery of messages through the national press on health or agriculture, for example, to mobilize populations behind government development. This trend is serving to democratize access to information and communication resources and media professionals cannot isolate themselves from audiences they are supposed to serve.
    Other interesting forms of media and ICT use include a UNESCO pilot project in Sri Lanka established in 1998 to assess prospects of converging community radio and informatics to serve rural information needs and to determine its possible impact on development efforts in rural communities. In Sri Lanka, the Kothmale Community Radio, which is being implemented in collaboration with the Ministry of Media and Telecommunications and based at the University of Colombo would offer community database and interactive broadcasts in ensuring that relevant community information needs are being adequately addressed.
    In Kenya, a news service organization based in Nairobi Interlink Rural Information Services (IRIS) has been able to improve its communications with correspondents in the region and to use the Internet to market its news briefs about rural issues in East Africa to new clients in the USA and Europe. The Southern African Broadcasting Association news service (SABA News) supports a fax/email news delivery service for the national broadcasters in southern Africa.
    In Uganda, radio (HF) e-mail has proven to be an effective means for upcountry/rural communications through a local ISP - Uganda Connect. This pioneering initiative requires very careful regulation to enhance and facilitate its more widespread proliferation before commercial interests' appropriate technology. High Frequency (HF) is free-to-air, whereas proposed rural connections through, for instance, Low Earth Orbit satellites (LEOs) come with connection charges of between a dollar and three dollars a minute that are beyond the reach of most members of society. Besides, the importance of the application of HF email is immense when one considers it against the backdrop of community radio stations that have proliferated in many African countries.
    3.2 The challenges
    While ICTs are a new potent force, their adaptation and utilization in Africa is constrained by among other problems inadequate infrastructure, limited human resource capacity, the absence of national policy and low ICT literacy. Consequently, there has to be a focus on people, organizations and processes in tackling some of the challenges, rather than solely on the technologies. Issues such as ownership and control of information production and dissemination, software development, use of local languages and choice of technology are major challenges. Control over access to information, its quality and relevance, constitutes the basic concern in democratizing access to the information society because information represents power.
    Some political structures in Africa still see knowledge as a threat and are not ready to relinquish power. Evidence of this can be found in the way institutions are still not quite autonomous and independent; even despite attempts some regulatory agencies are viewed as government agencies, working in government interests than in those of the public. Moreover, the regulatory agencies that have been established to oversee the information environment lack the requisite expertise, equipment and management resources to operate effectively.
    So far in many countries, access to ICTs has been restricted to cities, leaving out the 70 percent of Africans who live in rural areas and who often constitute a rural social group of farmers, petty traders, fisher-folk, artisans, and peasants. Though the challenges facing the continent are not insurmountable, strategies and policies that are developed need to pay heed to the peculiar problems of Africa.
    3.2.1 Women
    African women’s organizations have been some of the proactive players in democratizing access to the information society. The question of training and how ICT policies take into consideration the needs of women at all levels becomes a critical issue in the access debate. In Africa, women’s organizations in collaboration with international partners have committed themselves to strengthening ICT-skills base among organizations. Increasingly, women’s’ organizations are keen to use ICTs to promote their acquisition of knowledge and the interaction between different groups in society (such as decision-makers, government officials and other development actors) to facilitate rapid and equitable socio-economic development. However, there is still a shortage in the skill base of women.
    Organizations such as ENDA, ABANTU for Development, SangoNet, Baobab and the Association for Progressive Communications (APC) have started conducting electronic communications training for women’s groups specifically in Franco-phone West African countries, and in East and Southern Africa. The result is that women’s organizations in these regions are increasingly experimenting with on-line conferences, mailing lists and web sites and are creating alternative communication channels to support their efforts, defend their rights, and diffuse their own forms of representation. A woman in South Africa, recently working on a campaign for women's reproductive and health rights, posted a message to the APC Africa Women mailing list concerning campaigns and information from other African countries. Women from two other African countries responded with information on precedent legislation, which could help the advocacy campaign in South Africa. A Senegalese woman, unable to find data locally on the number of women Ministers in African governments, contacted the international APC women's network through its mailing list. A woman in Geneva with access to UN agency information was able to fax relevant information to Senegal, which was used to support advocacy concerning women's participation in African governments.
    ICTs empowers South African womenWomen'sNet is a vibrant and innovative networking support program designed to enable South African women to use the Internet to find the people, issues, resources and tools needed for women's social action. A project of SANGONeT in partnership with the Commission on Gender Equality, Women'sNet evolved out of a brainstorming workshop held in June 1997 where the information and communication technology (ICT) needs of women were discussed. The need to adapt this technology to the uses of women and to develop women's capacity in all communities - but especially in rural and urban communities where women have least access to information - was agreed on. One of the first steps identified to build women's capacity to use ICT was to develop a practical framework for sourcing, organizing and making information available centrally from a web site in a friendly and accessible way. Women'sNet aims to empower South African women to use information and communications technologies (ICTs) towards advancing women's equality. It is a dynamic source of locally generated information and discussion on gender issues. · making this technology accessible to women, particularly those who have been historically disadvantaged · providing responsive gender-sensitive training and support · linking projects, people, tools and resources · creating a platform for women's voices and issues · facilitating the dissemination of information in formats accessible to women who are not directly linked to the Internet."In the pipeline... · a comprehensive Internet training programme for women · regional technical support centers in South Africa's nine provinces · a program of women's information resource development · a WWW clearinghouse of relevant information and tools
    The Women Farmers Association of Nigeria’s (WOFAN) has access to email and acts as a focal point for NGOs in and around Kano in Northern Nigeria. WOFAN is the key ‘information broker’ for its affiliates and other NGOs and uses information as resource and training material for workshops and seminars.
    Gender -sensitivity should be incorporated into every aspect of ICT development in society.

    3.2.2 Language and Culture
    The multi-lingual, multi-cultural setting in Africa adds to the complexity of democratizing access to the information society and remains to this day a rather daunting challenge. The seven million documents on the Internet are predominantly shaped by Western countries at the forefront of the technologies. Over 70% of all the host computers, which currently form the foundations of the Internet, are in the US. Thus the plurality of users that one can witness today does not necessarily reflect traditional definitions of ‘cultural pluralism’. As a result, linguistic differences still represent substantial barriers to communication and knowledge/information sharing.
    It is only through well thought out strategies involving key stakeholders that African countries can begin to address such linguistic differences. Language engineering innovations are providing a basis for integrating written and spoken language processing techniques and improving their ease of use. New applications such as multilingual information services and computer assisted translation may provide greater possibilities for communication among the many dialects and linguistic traditions within and between African countries. However, although ICT applications are being developed that will help to improve information access and interchange across language barriers, this is a technology largely confined to the industrialized world at present. Consequently, language and cultural barriers remain a big challenge to democratizing access to the information society.
    Given the multilingual nature of Africa, stakeholders need to explore ways of integrating oral traditions, local languages with appropriate applications. Also countries need to embark on studies to examine the impact of ICTs on cultural identities and values, as well as on the social and cultural factors which determine the effective application and use of ICTs.
    3.2.3 Content
    Content development is at the heart of the complex issue of language and culture with regards to democratizing access to the information society and is an area that needs urgent attention if as many people as possible are to become stakeholders. Thus far all indications point to the fact that African content is marginal and according to the UNDP Human Development Report, English is used in almost 80 percent of all web sites although less than one in 10 people worldwide speak the language. Also a survey conducted by Network Wizards in July 1998 state that the information available on the Internet is dominated by material produced in the US, Europe and Asia, with Africa generating only around 0.4 per cent of global content. And if South Africa is excluded, Africa generates a mere 0.02 per cent of global Internet content. Media content
    Having said that, the African media has made some significant contributions, with summaries and copies of entire newspapers going on-line each day. For instance, the AfricaWire site (http://www.africawire.com/africawire.html) has a mixture of radio and newspapers and provides easy access to many African newspapers such as the Addis Tribune, Angola News Flash, and the Ghanaian Times. It also carries a number of international newspapers and publications from Francophone Africa. Africa Online also has many African newspapers from countries including Burundi, Cote d’Ivoire, Ghana, Kenya, Rwanda and Uganda. The Internet for instance is beginning to open up to radio and is now possible for radio stations all over the world to download short radio pieces directly for broadcast. Users can also listen to radio stations over the Internet that they would not normally be able to tune into over the air. Through the operation of the Radio News Service, OneWorld Online has developed technical relationships with, and support mechanisms for, radio stations all over the world, including a project based in Mali, which links together broadcasters in 10 Francophone West African countries in an Internet-based programme exchange. OneWorld Online also brings to radio stations unique technical know-how in the online dissemination of news and feature content with an alternative agenda. Increasingly, national broadcasters (both radio and TV) can be found on the Internet. Content can be developed through innovative partnerships between local ISPs and NGOs and other such bodies. For instance this year, OneWorld begun the serialization of a 26-part radio drama about the State of policing in Nigeria. The drama serial was produced by the Center for Law Enforcement Education (CLEEN), a nonprofit and non-governmental organization in Lagos. Other forms of African content
    Content on African travel and tourism is also increasing and information from countries such as Zimbabwe, Botswana, Tanzania, Uganda, Morocco, Senegal, Ghana, Zambia, Kenya, Egypt, The Gambia and Tunisia is now available on national web-sites with information on internal travel tours, hotel accommodation and transportation. Many travelers frequently make hotel reservations to most of these countries through the Internet.
    The Ford and Rockefeller Foundations’ sponsored Project for Information Access and Connectivity (PIAC) has an activity known as Database of African Theses and Dissertations (DATAD). This activity is geared towards enhancing content through the archiving and indexing of theses and dissertations completed in African Universities on CD-ROM technology with links to other electronic databases enabling researchers around the world gain access to research on Africa and vice versa.
    However, Lishan Adam of ECA notes the visible absence of African scientific and technological information; the little that exists in this category is mainly devoted to information technology; attempts to build consolidated directories, virtual libraries and gateways on Africa-related science and technology information have not yet borne fruit.
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    3.2.4 Training
    Training is the biggest challenge facing all societies and is the key to preparing each and every sector and class for the full deployment of ICTs. It is by building and developing a critical mass of people that a participatory approach to the information society can emerge. Training also offers the lifeline to full participation, management and sustainability of information and communication systems and channels. Therefore, stakeholders, at the grassroots, technical, managerial, and policy levels of society must pursue a coherent human resource development programme with training needs assessments for the development of effective formal and non-formal training packages, designed for different social classes.
    There are a number of training initiatives on a national, regional and continental basis. So far, these initiatives lack coordination even though they have contributed positively to ICT awareness in Africa. The UNESCO Regional Informatics Network for Africa (RINAF), which started in 1987 to build capacity in the use of computer networking technology in Africa is one of the major continental projects. The initial aim was to create nuclei of connectivity and competence within the sub-regional nodes in Algeria, Kenya, Nigeria, Senegal and Zambia through the provision of training and networking equipment. In addition, there have been regional training programmes undertaken by non-governmental organizations, aimed at building ICT skills within civil society groups. However there is a need for awareness raising on policy formulation for instance, to build a critical mass within civil society to influence policy decisions and directions.
    Training programmes that can enhance access need strategic investments targeted at all sectors of the economy and all levels of society. National ICT curricula should be developed for universities and other tertiary institutions, secondary and primary levels of education in the short, medium and long-term. Such curricula should target community and vocational institutions as well.
    In addition, there is a need for capacity building programmes, which develop the skills-base of people in:
    Participatory skills, which are necessary for information sharing in networked communication. This includes computer literacy and fluency in English language for use of the Internet, databases and most other software until such time as indigenous content in local African languages take off,
    Facilitating skills, for installation, user training, and maintenance is required for the design, implementation and maintenance of networks, as well as software and engineering skills. From a training policy perspective, there would be a need for extensive vocational training to provide a large pool of manpower to ensure functional networks.
    When tele-medicine was being introduced in Egypt at the University of Cairo, approximately 350 health workers including doctors were trained in hospitals where key nodes were established. The techniques provided include access to medical journals, the development of local content and video-conferencing. Training rural communities
    In developing training programmes for rural communities, a great deal of emphasis should be put on enhancing participatory communication, such as group facilitation and group dynamics. Attention should also be paid to the form and techniques of indigenous communications that exist so that links can be made with indigenous communication efforts to ensure bottom-up planning and needs-based projects. As a result, a comprehensive multi-dimensional national training programme should be developed in consultation with stakeholders. Also training centers should be identified and well equipped for such programmes.
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    4. Success stories in democratizing access to the Information Society
    Though it is early days in democratizing access to the information society, there are some initial successes in Africa as well as in other places. The Mamelodi Community Information Services (MACIS) in South Africa builds confidence in the use of telecentres in urban low-income and rural areas (see box on MACIS).
    Mamelodi Community Information Services (MACIS), SOUTH AFRICAMACIS was launched on 1st July 1995 as a pilot project for the Center for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR). The MACIS idea was first discussed with some community leaders, who recommended a workshop of community organizations to explore the concept further. The ensuing workshop brought together representatives from the youth, women, business, political, education, health communities, as well as churches, NGO’s, CBO’s, government and other organizations. It was agreed that the project be housed in the community library and function as an independent and autonomous entity. MACIS links information needs in the community with information resources that provide survival information on health, housing, education, government services and plans, employment, etc., and with citizen action information, which is needed for effective participation in social, political and economic processes. The MACIS operates on a Wireless Community Network, invented by CSIR, known as Community Information Delivery System (CIDS), which is a semi-urban and rural community network providing on-line, high-speed access to local nodes and to the Internet. It is a cost-effective way for schools to connect to the Uninet, for b

    People around the globe are more connected to each other than ever before. Information and money flow more quickly than ever. Goods and services produced in one part of the world are increasingly available in all parts of the world. International travel is more frequent. International communication is commonplace. This phenomenon has been titled "globalization."
    "The Era of Globalization" is fast becoming the preferred term for describing the current times. Just as the Depression, the Cold War Era, the Space Age, and the Roaring 20's are used to describe particular periods of history; globalization describes the political, economic, and cultural atmosphere of today.
    While some people think of globalization as primarily a synonym for global business, it is much more than that.
    Globalization refers to the growth of linkages across national boundaries, the expansion of the market economy, and the rise of a complex but increasingly integrated world society.

    The local impact of globalization on specific communities and cultures, of the reciprocal influence of local level initiatives and responses to globalization and of the complex ways in which globalization reproduces itself and impacts particular social spaces.
    Globalization refers to the growth of linkages across national boundaries, the expansion of the market economy, and the rise of a complex but increasingly integrated world society.
    Global-Local Ethnography
    Comparative Politics
    Global History
    Diplomatic History
    Transnational Culture
    Development and Social Change
    Democracy in Globalization
    Human Security
    Conflicts and Security
    Globalization and Popular Religion
    Globalization and Public Policy
    Comparative Politics
    International Political Economy

    World Politics
    Realism is preoccupied with security concerns: conflict, conflict resolution, war, arms races, alliances, etc. Yet, many interpretations of the end of the Cold War, including realist ones, stress economic factors such as the squeeze among consumption, investment, and arms spending, and ideational factors such as common security and interdependence as a "new" belief in the Soviet Union. Is this an inconsistency? Has realism included a theory of economics and culture all along or does recognition of these factors point to weaknesses of realist theory?
    The end of the Cold War led some IR theorists to reassess traditional approaches and look elsewhere to explain international politics. Discuss one new general direction that the field has taken. Outline this direction and then focus on what you see as its advantages and disadvantages. Does this new direction reflect fundamental changes in IR theorizing or are we just seeing old wine in new bottles?
    International Security
    What do our theories of ethnic and civil conflict suggest about the likelihood of civil war erupting in Iraq?
    Russett and Oneal emphasize three factors in the democratic peace. This "Kantian Triangle" consists of domestic democratic institutions, international institutions, and international commerce. Each is said to have a separate impact and an impact when taken together (a three-way interaction). In contrast to this, recent work has argued, and attempted to demonstrate empirically, that most of the effects of democracy on peace have to do with information, i.e. the ways in which democratic governments use and organize information. Evaluate this proposition.

    International Political Economy
    How has economic globalization influenced the balance of power between labor and capital? How helpful are trade models outlined by Rogowski and Frieden in understanding the impact of globalization on domestic politics? Are the political implications of trade globalization different from that of capital globalization?
    How has rational choice contributed to the study of the politics of economic policymaking? Are these contributions limited to advanced capitalist economies? Draw upon empirical literature to support your position.

    International Organization/International Law
    How do recent events in Iraq shed light on the debate between constructivists, neoliberals, and realists over the role institutions play in international politics?
    Three types of international actors seem to influence world politics: inter-state international organizations, multi-national corporations, and international NGOs. How will rationalists and constructivists explain the emergence and functioning of these structures? Do these structures have common 'pathologies'?
    Directions: Choose one question from each of the four sections. You have nine hours (9:00-6:00). Remember that the exam tests both the breadth and the depth of your knowledge of the field. In answering each question, do not write only in generalities: refer to specific authors and/or books and articles. Think about the exam as a whole: avoid repeating references to the same theories and/or authors in different answers.
    World Politics
    1. "Constructivists are to liberals what rationalists are to realists." Discuss.
    2. Evaluate the relevance of realism in the face of growing agglomeration of the nation state, viz, European Union, and the growing disaggregation of politics, viz, the fracture of the Caucasus or the growth of global irredentism.
    International Security
    1. "The war on terror and the preventive war in Iraq illustrate the irrelevance of deterrence theory." Discuss.
    "The neoconservatives's influence on the Bush administration's security policy shows how wrong the field has been to underplay the power of ideas and individuals in shaping some of the most important contours of international politics." Discuss
    International Political Economy
    Robert Gilpin's The Political Economy of International Relations (1987) identified three basic approaches to IPE: Liberal, Marxist, and Nationalist. To what extent has each approach succeeded in developing a full-fledged (theoretically organized, empirically based) research program in international political economy? Would it be more accurate to describe IPE as the study of the intersection of political and economic variables at the international level?
    Has the literature on globalization generated new insights in the study of IPE? Or is it a rehash of transnationalism and complex interdependence? What are the neglected variables in a globalization-centered study of IR? Be sure to draw on recent empirical work.

    International Organization/International Law
    IR scholars have long studied the role of international institutions in promoting international cooperation. These institutions range from explicitly negotiated formal institutions to the broader, more sociological sense of patterned behavior. Discuss this work and the research program that you feel has been most productive. What does your answer say about the future study of the role of international institutions in promoting cooperation?
    Until the publication of Moravcsik's "Preferences and Power in the European Community: A Liberal Intergovernmental Approach" (1993), the debate within European regional integration theory was between realists on the one hand and functionalists and neofunctionalists on the other. To what extent did Moravcsik's article, and his subsequent book (The Choice of Europe) restructure the terms of debate? Is his liberal intergovenmentalism just a continuation of realism or did he break new ground? How if at all did he recast the debate?

    Human societies across the globe have established progressively closer contacts over many centuries, but recently the pace has dramatically increased. Jet airplanes, cheap telephone service, email, computers, huge oceangoing vessels, instant capital flows, all these have made the world more interdependent than ever. Multinational corporations manufacture products in many countries and sell to consumers around the world. Money, technology and raw materials move ever more swiftly across national borders. Along with products and finances, ideas and cultures circulate more freely. As a result, laws, economies, and social movements are forming at the international level. Many politicians, academics, and journalists treat these trends as both inevitable and (on the whole) welcome. But for billions of the world’s people, business-driven globalization means uprooting old ways of life and threatening livelihoods and cultures. The global social justice movement, itself a product of globalization, proposes an alternative path, more responsive to public needs. Intense political disputes will continue over globalization’s meaning and its future direction.
    Globalization of the Economy

    Advances in communication and transportation technology, combined with free-market ideology, have given goods, services, and capital unprecedented mobility. Northern countries want to open world markets to their goods and take advantage of abundant, cheap labor in the South, policies often supported by Southern elites. They use international financial institutions and regional trade agreements to compel poor countries to "integrate" by reducing tariffs, privatizing state enterprises, and relaxing environmental and labor standards. The results have enlarged profits for investors but offered pittances to laborers, provoking a strong backlash from civil society. This page analyzes economic globalization, and examines how it might be resisted or regulated in order to promote sustainable development.
    Globalization of Politics
    Traditionally politics has been undertaken within national political systems. National governments have been ultimately responsible for maintaining the security and economic welfare of their citizens, as well as the protection of human rights and the environment within their borders. With global ecological changes, an ever more integrated global economy, and other global trends, political activity increasingly takes place at the global level.
    Under globalization, politics can take place above the state through political integration schemes such as the European Union and through intergovernmental organizations such as the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank and the World Trade Organization. Political activity can also transcend national borders through global movements and NGOs. Civil society organizations act globaly by forming alliances with organizations in other countries, using global communications systems, and lobbying international organizations and other actors directly, instead of working through their national governments.
    Globalization of Culture

    Technology has now created the possibility and even the likelihood of a global culture. The Internet, fax machines, satellites, and cable TV are sweeping away cultural boundaries. Global entertainment companies shape the perceptions and dreams of ordinary citizens, wherever they live. This spread of values, norms, and culture tends to promote Western ideals of capitalism. Will local cultures inevitably fall victim to this global "consumer" culture? Will English eradicate all other languages? Will consumer values overwhelm peoples' sense of community and social solidarity? Or, on the contrary, will a common culture lead the way to greater shared values and political unity? This section looks at these and other issues of culture and globalization.
    Globalization of Law
    Law has traditionally been the province of the nation state, whose courts and police enforce legal rules. By contrast, international law has been comparatively weak, with little effective enforcement powers. But globalization is changing the contours of law and creating new global legal institutions and norms. The International Criminal Court promises to bring to justic odious public offenders based on a worldwide criminal code, while inter-governmental cooperation increasingly brings to trial some of the most notorious international criminals. Business law is globalizing fastest of all, as nations agree to standard regulations, rules and legal practices. Diplomats and jurists are creating international rules for bankruptcy, intellectual property, banking procedures and many other areas of corporate law. In response to this internationalization, and in order to serve giant, transnational companies, law firms are globalizing their practice. The biggest firms are merging across borders, creating mega practices with several thousand professionals in dozens of countries.
    A Closer Look: Cases of Globalization

    Globalization expands and accelerates the movement and exchange of ideas and commodities over vast distances. It is common to discuss the phenomenon from an abstract, global perspective, but in fact globalization's most important impacts are often highly localized. This page explores the various manifestations of interconnectedness in the world, noting how globalization affects real people and places.
    Measuring Globalization
    It is impossible to measure a nebulous concept like globalization precisely, but increasing interconnectedness is readily apparent in a host of economic, demographic, technological, and cultural changes. The data below track concrete global linkages that, in sum, begin to trace the more general phenomenon.
    Take Action on Globalization

    Globalization is a complex, abstract phenomenon, but civil society has shown that it is neither unalterable nor inevitable. Citizens all over the world--human rights advocates and religious leaders, environmentalists and trade unionists, ordinary people from the global North and South--work together to make concrete improvements in people's lives. This page explores how to work for change in a globalized world, and shows concerned individuals how to become involved.
    Samir Amin: Capitalism in the Age of Globalization: The Management of Contemporary Society (London, Zed Books, 1997)
    Richard Barnet and John Cavanagh: Global Dreams: Imperial Corporations and the New World Order (New York, Simon & Schuster, 1994)
    Zygmunt Bauman: Globalization: The Human Consequences (Cambridge, Polity Press, 1998)
    Oliver Boyd-Barrett and Terhi Rantanen: The Globalization of News (London, Sage, 1998)
    Sandra Braman and Annabelle Sreberny-Mohammadi: Globalization, Communication and Transnational Civil Society (New Jersey, Hampton Press, 1996)
    Jeremy Brecher and Tim Costello: Global Village or Global Pillage: Economic Reconstruction From the Bottom Up (Boston, South End Press, 1994)
    Lowell L. Bryan and Diana Farrell: Market Unbound: Unleashing global capitalism (New York, John Wiley, 1996)
    Michel Chossudovsky: The Globalisation of Poverty: Impacts of IMF and World Bank Reforms (London, Zed Books, 1997)
    Ian Clark: Globalization and Fragmentation: International Relations in the Twentieth Century (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1997)
    Susan E. Clarke: The Work of Cities (Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1998)
    William Greider: One World, Ready or Not: The Manic Logic of Global Capitalism (New York, Simon & Schuster, 1997)
    Satya Dev Gupta: The Political Economy of Globalization (Boston, Zed Books, 1997)
    Jeff Haynes: Religion, Globalization, and Political Culture in the Third World (New York, St. Martin's Press, 1999)
    Andrew Herod, Gearoid O Tuathail, and Susan M. Roberts: An Unruly World? : Globalization, Governance, and Geography (New York, Routledge, 1998)
    Ankie M.M. Hoogvelt: Globalization and the Postcolonial World: The New Political Economy of Development (Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997)
    R.J. Holton: Globalization and the Nation-State (New York, Macmillan press, 1998)
    Jeffrey James: Globalization, Information Technology and Development (New York, St. Martin's Press, 1999)
    Ray Kiely and Phil Marfleet: Globalisation and the Third World (New York, Routledge, 1998)
    Mark Lewis: The Growth of Nations: Culture, Competitiveness, and the Problem of Globalization (England, Bristol Academic Press, 1996)
    Priyatosh Maitra: The Globalization of Capitalism in Third World Countries (Westport, Praeger, 1996)
    James H. Mittelman: Globalization: Critical Reflections (Boulder, Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1996)
    Zdravko Mlinar: Globalization and Territorial Identities (Vermont, Avebury, 1992)
    Proshanta K. Nandi and Shahid M. Shahidullah: Globalization and the Evolving World Society (Boston, Brill, 1998)
    Roland Robertson: Globalization: Social Theory and Global Culture (London, Sage, 1992)
    Saskia Sassen: Globalization and Its Discontents (New York, New Press, 1998)
    Victor Segesvary: From Illusion to Delusion: Globalization and the Contradictions of Late Modernity (San Francisco, International Scholars Publications, 1999)
    Gary Teeple: Globalization and the Decline of Social Reform (New Jersey, Humanities Press, 1995)
    Caroline Thomas and Peter Wilkin: Globalization and the South (New York, St. Martin's Press, 1997)
    Malcolm Waters: Globalization (New York, Routledge, 1995)

  • L E A S I N G


    In its simplest legal terms, a lease has four attributes. It is first, an agreement between the owner of the asset (the lessor) and the prospective or current user of that asset (the lessee). Second, pursuant to the agreement, the lessor transfers the use (but not the ownership) of the asset to the lessee. Third, the lessee compensates the lessor for the use of the asset, usually in the form of rent. Finally after the pre-determined period of use (the lease term), which should not exceed the asset’s economic life, the lessee return the asset to the lessor or, depending on the arrangements, may have an option to buy it.


    There are many types of transactions that are referred to as leases some of which, from a legal point, do not constitute leases. The two main types of leases are finance leases and operating leases. The will only be involved in both finance lease and operating lease transactions.


    As a matter of principle, the company will deal only with limited liability companies having an established operating history. The company should have demonstrated profitable historical operations and ability to meet its financial obligations. A company with a relatively recent history may be considered if supported by excellent ownership and management with demonstrated integrity, honesty and commitment to honour financial responsibilities.


    The company shall only deal in transport equipment.
    Other types of equipment may be considered on their own merit.


    By definition of a finance lease, the lessor is essentially a financier. The Company will, therefore, as much as is practicable, rely on the lessee to identify the equipment and supplier.


    As the main security in the contract, the company shall retain the title or ownership to the equipment for the duration of the lease and will only effect transfer to the lessee at the end of the lease term upon the lessee exercising the right and fulfilling the terms of the purchase option described below.


    The value of the lease will be the initial cost incurred by the Bank in acquiring the asset to be leased. The lease facility will be denominated in United States Dollars (US$) and, accordingly, rental payments will be made to the company in US Dollars. At the moment the lease amounts are limited to minimum of US $ 5,000 and a maximum of US $ 500,000. This amount is subject to review from time to time.


    The following are some of the main aspects of the terms and conditions for the lease facility offered by the Company.

    i. Lease Period: This will normally be stated as the number of months that
    the lease will be in force. The length of the lease will depend on the nature of equipment and the cash flow of the lessee. In principal, the lease period shall not exceed the economic life of the equipment to be leased. The company will consider lease periods of twelve (12) to Fourty Eight (48) months.

    ii. Rental Payments: Rental payments shall be monthly and payable in
    advance starting immediately after delivery of the leased equipment. The table below gives the monthly rent, net of all forms of taxes, paid up-front each month, as a percentage of the lease amount. Any taxes such as VAT will be separately determined and added to these amounts. Figures for other lease periods can be similar computed.

    Lease Period 12 Months 24 Months 36 Months 48 Months
    Monthly Rent High 9.96% 5.97% 4.71% 4.13%
    Low 9.55% 5.50% 4.19% 3.56%

    iii. Commission: A commission of 1% of the lease value shall be charged
    and payable before the company undertakes a detailed appraisal of the lease application. The terms governing the said commission shall be as follows;

    a. If after appraisal and approval of the request the applicant declines the offer, the commission shall be forfeited.

    b. If after appraisal the company declines the request, the commission shall be refunded.

    iv. Deposit Account: Before opening of the Letter of Credit or making any
    payment for the equipment to be leased, the lessee shall deposit a sum equivalent to 10 - 20% of the lease value. The deposit, shall be refunded in full at the end of

    the lease period providing that there will not have been any defaults in rental payments.

    v. Insurance The equipment shall always be fully insured by the lessee,
    at his expense, against all risks and in such value as the company reasonably requires with an insurance firm acceptable to the company, and shall maintain a loss payable endorsement in favour of the company and the financing Bank.

    vi. Maintenance The lessee shall, at his expense, be responsible for the
    regular maintenance and repair of the equipment as recommended by the manufacturer. The company shall have the right, but not obligation, to inspect the condition and maintenance certificates of the equipment at all reasonable times.

    vii. Purchase Option: Having full observed all the terms and conditions of the
    lease as per a Lease Agreement to be signed between the Bank and the lessee, the latter shall, at the end of the lease period have the option of buying the equipment at a nominal amount of the original lease value. The table below gives the buyout values, as a percentage of the lease value for selected lease periods:

    Lease Period 12 Months 24 Months 36 Months 48 Months
    Buy-out Value 2.50% 2.50% 5.00% 7.50%

    1. Insurance
    All Hertz vehicles are comprehensively insured. The lessee will be responsible for the payment of the first 10% on any insurance claim involving the leased vehicle. The details of the cover are as follows:

    a. Bodily injury (including death) to the driver of the vehicle with a maximum limit of Ug.Shs.10m/= per claim for any one accident.

    b. Bodily injury including (death) to the passengers in the leased vehicle in full accordance and subject to all applicable Uganda laws and with limits as prescribed by law with a maximum of Ug.Shs.10m/= per claim.

    c. Liability to Third Party-Any one accident Ug.Shs.10m/= per person per
    Occurrence. Aggregate – Ug.Shs.50m/= per occurrence.

    d. Third party property damage up to a maximum of Ug.Shs.50 million in respect of any one claim.

    e. Full coverage for vehicles for damages including collisions, fire and theft.

    2. Maintenance and Repair
    The monthly lease rate also includes complete routine servicing including oil changes. For new vehicles, the first service will take place at 1500 kilometers and thereafter at every 15,000 kilometers or at three monthly intervals, whichever comes first. Repairs that are a result of normal wear and tear are also covered under this heading. All maintenance will be carried out either in Hertz workshop, Hertz dealer workshops or at Hertz appointed workshops.

    3. Hertz 40 Point Check
    Hertz will conduct its 40-point check on all leased vehicles after completion of service or repairs before being delivered to ensure that all vehicles are in excellent condition.

    4. Accidents
    Under normal circumstances the car should not be moved until police have arrived and given permission for this to be done. This condition is waived if the accident does not result in injuries to people or serious damage to the vehicles. In such a situation vehicles must be moved to ease traffic flow. In the event of an accident, a police
    report and a repair slip must be obtained from the appropriate police station.

    5. Replacement Vehicle
    The lessee will be entitled to replacement vehicle when the leased vehicle is in for service or repairs.

    6. 24 Hours Back-up Support Service
    Hertz will appoint a Service Coordinator for the leased vehicles. The Service Coordinator will be provided with a mobile telephone to be accessible 24 hours in the event of an emergency. Hertz will also provide an access to a telephone line to the Central Distribution Department at the Hertz main office, which can provide 24 hours service support including towing services, arranging replacement vehicle etc.,

    7. Delivery and Collection
    Hertz will provide a free delivery and collection service within city limits of Greater Kampala when the leased vehicle is due for service.

    8. Mileage
    For the basis of lease calculation standard mileage of approximately 2000 km per month has been assumed. In case of abnormal mileage, lease rates will need to be recalculated.

    9. Driver Qualification
    Any company appointed driver above the age of 21 holding a valid driving licence in Uganda is entitled to drive the leased vehicle under full insurance coverage.

    10. Traffic Violations
    All costs incurred as a result of fines and other penalties (imposed by the traffic police or any other authorities for traffic violations) that take place during the lease contract, will be the lessee’s responsibility and recovered accordingly. Hertz will levy a service charge of USD ($) 10/= to process each traffic fine.

    11. Premature Termination
    In the event that the lessee, returns the leased vehicles to Hertz before the expiry of the lease contract, then there will be a penalty of 3 months lease charges or charges.
    due up to the termination date of the lease contract whichever is the lower figure.

    12. Vehicle Availability & Specification

    The vehicles quoted are subject to availability based on dealer stocks and specifications could change depending on dealer imports.

    13. Payment Terms

    Our payment terms are quarterly billing in advance. We accept payments through credit cards only from companies which are not our worldwide account or have been doing business with us for less than one year.We accept Local Purchase Orders after Credit Status Rating.Credit Terms between 15 to 30 days. The table below gives the monthly rent, net of all forms of taxes, paid up-front each month, as a percentage of the lease amount. Any taxes such as VAT will be separately determined and added to these amounts. Figures for other lease periods can be similar computed.

    i. Saloons Standard

    Lease Period 12 Months 24 Months 36 Months 48 Months
    Monthly Rent 7.35% 6.34% 5.75% 5.73%
    ii. Saloons Executive

    Lease Period 12 Months 24 Months 36 Months 48 Months
    Monthly Rent 6.09% 5.78% 5.40% 5.08%

    iii. Four Wheel Drives

    Lease Period 12 Months 24 Months 36 Months 48 Months
    Monthly Rent 6.00% 5.67% 4.87% 4.42%

    14. Quote Validity
    The rates quoted are valid for a period of 30 days from the date of this proposal. Upon expiry of this period the rates are subject to reconfirmation based on your confirmed interest.

    Hertz is part of the Automotive division of C & A Tours & Travel Operators Limited.

    1. Hertz Profile

    Hertz Rent a Car is the world’s largest car rental company with a worldwide fleet of 420,000 vehicles at over 7000 locations in 151 countries.

    Hertz in Uganda is a franchised operation wholly owned by C & A Tours & Travel Operators Limited. It has FOUR locations in Uganda including 24 hour counters at Entebbe International Airport.

    When you rent a car with Hertz, you’ll discover just what makes us the world’s No.1 car rental company. You will find our cars, standard of service, and back-up are second to none. All vehicles are maintained to the highest possible standards fitted with standard equipment like Air-conditioning, seat belts and radio/cassette player. A wide range of optional services is also available. All cars pass a 40 – point check control before each rental.

    2. Hertz Services

    Hertz Rent a Car is a company, which specializes in transportation needs through the following plans:

    * Short-Term Rentals
    As the world’s leading vehicle rental company, we offer very competitive short-term rates (Daily, Weekly & Monthly) to suit every pocket from a wide range of brand new vehicles. Hertz will deliver and collect cars, free of charge within normal office hours within city limits.

    * One Way Rental
    Hertz offers the convenience of one way rental within Uganda. To accommodate the needs of customers requiring one-way rentals, the Hertz

    “Rent It Here/Leave It There” policy allows customers to rent at one Hertz location and return to another location on most car groups.

    * Chauffeur Drive & Transfer Services
    The Chauffeur drive service allows senior executives on the move to concentrate on business in hand whilst they are smoothly driven to their next appointment.

    * Lease Plan
    Hertz vehicle lease plan offers the advantages of a fully maintained & insured vehicle fleet including replacement vehicles. Your monthly

    transportation expenses become a known monthly cost and therefore fully forecastable. Dealing with Hertz you deal with the world’s No. 1 company with worldwide experience.

    * Affordable Europe & America
    On your travel abroad, Hertz offers the best value holiday car rental. Affordable Europe & America rates include unlimited mileage and Collision Damage Waiver. For many destinations you need to book your car only 24 hour in advance, irrespective of the length of your rental. For your personal accident insurance and theft protection. These must be paid at the time of rental.
    * Mobile Telephones & Child Seats
    Mobile telephones for short & long term rentals are available at very competitive rates with full back-up support. Child seats are provided free of charge based on request at the time of reservation and subject to availability.

    * Delivery & Collection
    Hertz will deliver and collect cars, free within city limits.

    * GSM on Wheels
    This program offers free mobile phones with rental cars. Prices include comprehensive insurance. Collision damage waiver and unlimited mileage (Flier enclosed)

    * Weekend Program
    Hertz one price weekend package is inclusive of comprehensive insurance, collision damage waiver and unlimited mileage. Cars can be picked up on a Saturday morning and returned back on Monday morning.


    Applicants for a leasing facility from the company shall be required to provide the following information:

    (a) The legal form of the company, with supporting documents.

    (b) Full description of ownership, directorship, organization and management set-up.

    (c) Company history and past performance, with supporting audited accounts
    for the past three years.

    (d) Description and technical specification, cost and supplier of the asset to be leased.

    (e) Terms and conditions of supply of the asset including after sale support services.

    (f) Usual operating site(s) or location(s), and accessibility of the asset during normal working hours.

    (g) A brief business plan.

    (h) Financial projections for at least the lease period, supporting the ability to meet regular rental payments.

    (i) Any other supporting activities and/or collateral at the lessee company’s disposal should the need arise.



    Sub-Theme 1: Leadership and Management

    In the coming decades, African universities will confront a host of difficult policy and management issues arising from changes in the domestic and global environment. Against a background of the demand explosion and the continuing financial squeeze; the global knowledge "revolution" and international competition for local students and staff, African universities must reposition themselves to solve these problems and continue to discharge their primary functions of higher learning and cultural leadership. Critical to success in this task will be the calibre and effectiveness of leadership and management at all levels of the African university. This sub-theme seeks to address aspects of this problem.

    General Objective

    To strengthen leadership and management capacity in African universities to enable help them respond effectively to the challenges of the national and global environments in which they operate.

    Planned Activities

    The following activities, building on Core Programme 1997-2000, are planned:
    A. A Study Programme(1) aimed at building up African capacity for research and analysis of management, policy and financing issues in African higher education, and for developing and assessing policy proposals; and

    B. Training Workshops on leadership, administration and management of universities. These will be of two kinds:

    (a) Senior University Management Workshops (SUMA) (2), for top university executives, especially new Rectors, Vice-Chancellors, and Presidents; and
    (b) Specialised workshops on such topics as strategic planning, research management, gender sensitization, diversification of funding sources, and information technology.


    Sub-Theme 2: Quality of Training and Research

    Towards a Dynamic Process of Curricular Reform and Innovations

    Higher education in the 21st century has become an increasingly complex enterprise. The complexity is seen in the avalanche of new and deep knowledge that is continually becoming globally available, the variety of this knowledge, and its import for humanity. Much of the new knowledge being generated is market-driven, as the world of work continually make new demands on graduates of tertiary institutions. This calls for new ways and methodologies of curricular reform, design or innovation that are capable of keeping pace with the complexity and rate of global knowledge generation. The reforms and innovations must be such as equip students with the skills that:

    1. are relevant in the world of work;

    prepare them for the need for their own continuous professional development within the framework of lifelong learning, and
    meet national or global goals and objectives.

    B. Regional Cooperation in Graduate Training and Research

    A key concept that has emerged in the information age is that of networking. The AAU will continue with its efforts to promote inter-university cooperation in graduate training and research in a number of fields. The programme will be pursued through the establishing of networks of universities with similar interests and goals in graduate education in specific fields as well as the strengthening of such networks where they already exist. The networks will be provided with support for the upgrading of equipment and facilities at participating universities, staff exchanges and completion of theses/dissertations.


    Sub-Theme 3: Information And Communication Technologies: Building Capacity in African Universities
    The status of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in Africa shows that the continent is at a growing disadvantage with respect to the global information and technological revolution. More critically, the Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in Africa which should be in the forefront of ensuring Africa's participation in the revolution are themselves unable and ill-prepared to play such a leadership role, because the information infrastructure of African Higher Education is poorly developed and inequitably distributed. African Universities are thus poorly positioned compared with their counterparts in Europe, North America and non-African developing regions, to benefit from the global information economy and knowledge systems. The development and application of ICT for African HEIs therefore becomes crucial and urgent if the continent is to be able to reduce the knowledge, technological, and economic gap between itself and the rest of the world, both developed and developing.

    Global trends in the application of ICT demonstrate that the power of ICT can transform the several interconnected functions of universities. Among other things, ICT offer the potential to strengthen conventional education while rapidly transforming distance education. It not only expand the research and development opportunities of the institutions but also strengthen libraries with access to an unlimited body of digital information globally, and bring considerable efficiency and effectiveness to university management.

    Universities in Africa are already addressing a number of issues that will either enhance or limit their ability to participate meaningfully in the global information revolution. For this purpose it is necessary to bring some focus and attention to critical steps that individual institutions need to take in order to meet the challenge of ICT.

    Broad Objectives

    The broad objectives in this area are to:

    encourage and assist African HEIs to formulate sound ICT policies and sustainable strategies for their implementation
    encourage the use of ICT in African HEIs to enhance teaching and learning and research
    encourage African HEIs to identify or establish an ICT unit that operate at a strategic level within the administration of the institution
    advocate for a regulatory framework and suitable standards conducive to more effective use, growth and development of ICT in HEIs
    facilitate the creation of a network of ICT experts

    Planned Activities:

    Survey of the use and application of information and communication technologies in higher education Institutions in Africa to:
    assess the capacity of African universities and other higher education institutions (HEIs) for the effective integration and utilization of ICT in their multidimensional functions and to make recommendations about how to ensure the widespread use of these technologies.
    Creation of a network of African ICT experts to
    analyse available human resources with ICT experts (including subject matter) with ICT;
    build and maintain an online database and directory of ICT experts;
    establish an e-forum to facilitate the sharing of ideas; and
    disseminate information related to the use of ICT in HEIs in Africa.
    Establishment of a database on the use and application of ICT in higher education institutions in Africa containing relevant information collected during the survey.

    Development and implementation of a coherent programme for the strengthening of the institutional capacities of African higher education institutions in the use of ICT.


    Sub-Theme 4: Women in African Tertiary Institutions: Equity, Empowerment and Advancement
    The problem of gender imbalance in African tertiary institutions is generally well known. Indeed, many individuals and organisations have, in recent times, produced papers and reports which highlight the problem. The imbalance manifests in the apparent low gender awareness/sensitivity, inadequate empowerment of women, and slow upward mobility of women, as well as the gamut of the instruments of governance, in African tertiary institutions. The AAU is interested in the implementation of concrete measures and projects for reversing the marginalisation of women in their quest for knowledge or upward mobility in their careers at the higher education level. The measures will be designed to promote all aspects of gender equity, especially the empowerment and advancement of women, in AAU member institutions.


    Sub-Theme 5: Improving management and access to African scholarly work:
    A: The Database of African Theses and Dissertations (DATAD):
    Although African theses and dissertations contain a wealth of local empirical data, rarely are they indexed in major databases, nor do they feature much in the local or international literature. Not surprisingly, African research has received little recognition, especially, overseas. In North America and Europe, on the other hand, theses and dissertations are well-preserved and indexed, and scholars and students worldwide have relatively easy access to them in print or digital form. Efforts made in the past to address the need for a globally-accessible, well-documented source of information on Africa theses and dissertations have been ad hoc and unsustained, and have yielded little fruit. The aim of the Database of African Theses and Dissertations initiative is to address this problem.
    General Objectives:

    These are to:

    Create capacity in African universities for the collection, management and dissemination of theses and dissertations electronically
    Provide visibility and improve access to the work of African scholars both within and outside of the continent
    Facilitate the development of relevant copyright procedures and regulations which will promote the protection of the intellectual property rights of African university researchers
    Provide support for AAU programs which aim at capacity building in the area of research, cooperation among member universities and networking of institutions with access to a central source of information
    Contribute to the creation of an environment conducive for research and publication in African universities and the region as a whole.
    B: Digital Library for Theses and Dissertations
    The objective is to initiate electronic submission of theses and dissertations. Further to the retrospective digitization of the bibliographic information of theses and dissertations, this initiative will work to encourage further exploitation of ICT through various strategies aimed at creating the environment an creating the capacity for submission of electronic theses and dissertations
    C: Guideline for Copyright and Intellectual Property Rights
    Many countries are found to have inadequate and/or outdated copyright and intellectual property rights laws. With due consideration for the current developments in electronic publishing, AAU would like to work with member institutions in developing a guideline for the copyright and intellectual property rights for use by universities.
    D: Collective Acquisition and/or access to Academic Literature
    Acquisition and access to current academic literature has been a major problem to most African institutions. As prices for the books and journals increase, institutions find it difficult to maintain adequate subscriptions for the satisfaction of the core programmes.
    Developing countries have been able to go round this by forming consortia. However, given the small number of universities per country in African it may be cost effective to develop a mechanism for collective subscriptions to international databases and journals. To this end, AAU aims at working with its member institutions to establish consortium for purposes of collective acquisition and/or access to academic literature.


    Projects on Major Emerging Issues
    A: Education for Peace and Conflict Avoidance
    Over the last two decades or so, civil strife and sub-regional conflicts have become endemic in several parts of Africa, with devastating effect on the lives and prospects of the affected peoples and their neighbours. The OAU and sub-regional bodies, as well as the international community have begun to address questions of conciliation, conflict prevention and collective peacekeeping. How are the continent's centres of learning contributing to a better understanding of these issues, and the design of policies and practices to ameliorate the situation? What more can they do? Indeed, what can education do to reinforce a culture of tolerance and avoid the conditions that breed conflict?
    Consideration will be given to developing a project or projects to suggest answers to these critical questions.

    B: HIV/AIDS and the Student
    HIV/AIDS threatens to lay waste a large segment of the African continent. Its malevolent effects on social life and economic development in several countries have become evident in recent years. A significant feature is the situation of secondary school and university students, who by reason of their age and lifestyles are particularly vulnerable to the scourge of HIV/AIDS. Attention has recently focussed on this phenomenon, in the conviction that proper education at this stage will not only reduce the danger to the student population, but also establish lifestyle changes that will go beyond the direct beneficiaries of such education.
    A set of nine case studies of "HIV/AIDS and Universities" recently commissioned by the ADEA/WGHE will open up important lines of enquiry for further investigation and testing. The AAU is a position to develop and implement follow-up studies of this and other relevant initiatives, most likely in collaboration with other interested agencies

    Projects on other emerging issues may be developed as appropriate

    1. The Study Programme on Higher Education Management in Africa, currently in its Second Phase, was established by the AAU in1993 to promote research into higher education management, and to collect, analyse and disseminate research results in order to facilitate the formulation and implementation of policies likely to improve the quality, cost-effectiveness and efficiency of higher education in Africa.
    2. The SUMA workshops were initiated in 1991 to strengthen the capacities of university officials in the fields of university policy, administration and management.

    Effective ICT work in schools will be the consequence of good leadership and effective coordination. Both are necessary factors for success. ICT is not a subject that can be delegated to an ICT Coordinator. In practice the leadership and coordination roles will complement one another and work so as to seek to drive the school towards a shared vision. Headteachers, curriculum deputies, ICT Coordinators and subject leaders will each demonstrate a leadership role with ICT.
    School leaders should seek to drive developments towards a vision of the school as a centre of excellence in using ICT for teaching and learning. The DfES refers to this vision as 'The School of the Future'. The National College for School Leadership (NCSL) describes the 'School of the Future' as the 'E-confident School'.Characteristics of the E-confident School High levels of staff confidence, competence and leadership Availability and access to technical support Re-engineering teaching, learning and assessment. Leading and managing distributed and concurrent learning Effective application within organisational and management processes Coherent personal learning development, support and access - for all staff Secure, informed professional judgement Appropriate resource allocation to ensure sustainable development Pupils/students with high levels of ICT capability School as the community learning and information hub Good leadership in ICT (at all levels) will be demonstrated through: having a clear understanding about the nature of ICT as a subject, and a learning medium understanding why ICT is potentially the most powerful learning medium yet developed having a clear vision of what the school should achieve with ICT over time being able to demonstrate how investments in ICT are impacting on learning and attainment achieving the balance between teaching ICT skills and applying them to learning knowing the key components to an ICT strategy that must be in place for ICT to succeed.Effective coordination in ICT will be demonstrated through: managing developments according to the school development plan for ICT maintaining good communication with SMT, heads of department, teachers and technicians identifying solutions to obstacles to ICT developments keeping SMT and teachers aware of key developments in ICT supporting staff development in the use of ICT across subjects evaluating progress in developing ICT and publicising pupils' achievements in using ICT

    An interim report by HM Inspectors of Education
    October 2005

    1. Introduction
    2. ICT Infrastructure in schools
    3. Professional development in ICT
    4. The impact of ICT on the quality of learning
    5. The impact of ICT on the quality of teaching
    6. The use of ICT in school administration
    7. The management of ICT in schools
    8. Remaining areas of concern for schools
    9. Conclusions

    The last HMI report on information and communications technology (ICT) of January 2000 stated that the ever-increasing pace of development in ICT presented the education system with a challenge to develop a capacity for change. It presented a list of recommendations regarding the roles and responsibilities at national, education authority and school levels. Some very sound progress has been made in the intervening time but many of these recommendations continue to be areas of concern. It is important that key players maintain a sound focus on developing this area appropriately.

    The Scottish Executive’s publication of A Curriculum for Excellence has turned the attention of educationalists to the values of education, the purposes of the curriculum and the principles underpinning curriculum design. It is important in this current re-evaluation of Scottish education, that we ensure that ICT is a clear strand in our thinking. Progressive ICT skills development in young people is an important component of their future core and life skills.

    HMIE is undertaking ongoing evaluation of the impact of ICT developments on the education of young people and intends to publish an overview report in late 2006. This interim report aims to offer a current evaluation with a view to supporting national improvement. It presents a range of good practice, a statement of key features that encourage and advance progress in this area and a set of broad recommendations to take the country’s schools forward.

    The report is being published on the HMIE website in advance of an invitation "ICT Summit" for Directors of Education and other senior personnel in education authorities, which is being offered jointly by Learning and Teaching Scotland, SEED and HMIE on 14/15 November 2005. It is intended as a background paper to stimulate thinking at that event and more generally among all with an interest in and responsibility for this area.

    Dr Wray Bodys
    HM Chief Inspector

    1.1 The purpose of this report

    The purpose of this report is:

    to offer a broad interim statement on the current impact of aspects of national ICT policy on learning and teaching, as observed in a sample of schools; and
    to identify some of the ways in which schools are using ICT to enrich the learning and meet the needs of individual pupils.
    With a view to supporting improvement in this area, the report also presents some key features that underpin identified good practice. In addition, it indicates areas where further development is required at both education authority and school levels. As will be noted in the conclusions section, a number of the recommendations of the HMI report of 2000, The use of ICT in learning and teaching1, continue to be areas of concern.

    1.2 The visits to schools

    HMIE views, as expressed in this report, are formed on the basis of extensive knowledge of the sector, achieved through contacts, visits, inspections and surveys. This report is based largely on specific visits to 45 schools, both primary and secondary, over 2002-2004, as part of an evaluation task requested by the New Educational Developments Division of SEED, to broadly evaluate the impact of national ICT developments in Scottish schools. The overall sample contained a number of schools identified as likely to illustrate good practice. During 2002-2003, the focus was largely on exploring good practice in identified primary and secondary schools.

    In 2003-2004, secondary schools were selected randomly to offer a further broad insight into national developments. Fourteen schools, including four in rural areas, were visited during this phase. During the second year of visits, HMIE also contributed three full "ICT school portraits" of schools to a set of case studies being collated by the Netherlands Inspectorate of Education. Further good practice and key principles were adduced from these three studies of two Scottish primary schools and one secondary school, which have now been published. Copies are available at http://www.hmie.gov.uk/hmiegoodpractice/materials.aspx?theme=2&topic=10. Other sources of evidence include HMIE’s general inspection programme and its responsibilities in Scotland for the quality assurance of the New Opportunities Fund (NOF) ICT training programme for school teachers and librarians. Where the views of education authorities (EAs) are quoted, they are based on the results of an unpublished 2003 survey issued to all authorities, conducted by SEED.

    The one-day visits to most schools included meetings with the headteacher and key senior managers involved with ICT, and a group of staff, including in secondary, principal teachers or heads of faculty. HM Inspectors also observed classes across a range of subjects where ICT was being used.

    Discussions, observation, and examination of documents covered the following range of topics.

    The level of ICT provision, its reliability, level of access to the Internet and quality of technical support.
    The degree to which ICT had or had not enhanced the effectiveness of learning and teaching.
    The degree to which ICT had contributed to raising attainment in key areas.
    The ways in which the school had organised ICT provision to ensure maximum effectiveness.
    The overall impact of staff development in ICT, including the NOF training programme.
    The extent to which the school had made use of distance-learning packages and web-based resources.
    The school’s methods for monitoring and evaluating its use of ICT to support learning and teaching.
    The school’s perceptions of constraints on its development of ICT use.
    This section describes aspects of the ICT infrastructure in the schools at the time when they were visited. Basic statements made here about the impact of the technology are expanded on in a later section.

    2.1 ICT equipment

    2.1.1 Most of the schools visited were well equipped in terms of ICT. The ratio of computers to pupils was broadly in line with national expectations.

    2.1.2 Most primary schools visited had used either or both of the following approaches to the organisation of computers:

    one or more computers in all classrooms;
    a separate computer suite or area available and often timetabled for whole class or group use.
    Where a computer suite was available, many schools made good use of small group presentations in the classroom, followed by pupils then working in pairs or individually in the suite. This strategy was most effective where the computer suite or area was adjacent to the teaching areas and could be accessed in a flexible way. Increasingly, classroom assistants played an effective role in supporting the teacher in accessing ICT in order to enrich children’s learning. It was not unusual for primary schools to have few computers connected to the Internet.

    2.1.3 In the secondary sector, most of the schools visited had now achieved the level of one computer per classroom, although a few had only one computer per department. In most such cases, the single machine in a classroom was used by the teacher and senior pupils only. Most computers had a connection to the Internet.

    2.1.4 Most secondary schools had created one or more general suites of computers, usually of 20 machines, to complement dedicated suites in the departments delivering business education, computing and technical education. Most school library resource centres also had a small suite of machines which allowed pupils to have some flexible access outside the classroom. However, even with judicious timetabling, general departmental access to computer suites was problematic and was rarely flexible enough to suit the needs of all classes. Few secondary schools had yet taken constructive steps to exploit facilities, to allow pupils more flexible access as part of their learning across the curriculum. Few had considered the more flexible use of classroom assistants in managing pupils’ learning using ICT, as was common in the primary sector.

    2.1.5 The limitations of available accommodation were often a barrier to schools’ aspirations to increase staff and pupil access to ICT. Some headteachers considered that the relatively small size of classrooms in recently-built schools often made the siting of computers difficult.

    2.1.6 A few schools made use of mobile sets of laptops and wireless technology to provide more flexible pupil access to ICT. However, the limited battery life of the laptops and the necessary recharging sometimes reduced the effectiveness of such approaches.

    2.1.7 Practitioners in a number of schools expressed concerns regarding the reliability of equipment, problems with their networks and insufficient appropriate technical support. School managers recognised the importance of refreshing their stock of computers. However, a majority of schools did not have a clear policy on the phased replacement of equipment, or they perceived difficulty in identifying the necessary finance.

    2.1.8 In the last few years, there had been a commendable increase in both primary and secondary schools in the number of data projectors, interactive whiteboards, digital cameras and facilities for digital video editing. A few of the schools visited were making very effective use of this equipment, but most did not capitalise on it fully.

    2.1.9 Most science departments in the secondary sector had access to data logging and interfacing equipment. Some had computer-connected microscopes. There was a wide range in the frequency of use of this equipment. A few technical departments had digital lathe control. Most had computer-assisted design (CAD) software.

    2.1.10 Less than half the schools visited had Broadband access to the Internet, and most of these were in the secondary sector. The rest had ISDN or equivalent access. Some schools reported significant reductions in speed of access to the Internet at peak usage times. Almost all schools provided evidence of a policy for safe Internet use, a clear system for filtering incoming information and good arrangements for monitoring pupil access to the Internet.

    2.1.11 Many schools’ systems were run by an authority-wide managed service. The majority of headteachers reported that these managed services delivered a good level of service, but many felt that one adverse impact was that they prevented teachers from accessing a wide range of relevant educational sites. See also 2.2.2.

    2.1.12 Some schools had access to videoconferencing facilities. However, such facilities were often underused. Some of the best use observed was by modern languages staff and pupils. In a few schools, senior pupils studying a language had built on e-mail contacts with schools abroad and used the technology to make presentations in the foreign language. A number of rural schools made effective use of videoconferencing to share lessons with pupils in other schools.

    2.2 Technical support

    2.2.1 Some schools reported ongoing concerns about the overall reliability of their school equipment and network, difficulties in accessing the Internet, and problems with printing. The most common sources of problems were internal server failures, issues to do with operating systems upgrades, or "down-times" from the EA provider. In some cases, schools had to use older equipment that was often incompatible with newer operating systems.

    2.2.2 Most schools received their ICT equipment and technical support through a managed service, paid for by the education authority. The quality of support and response time of these managed services varied across the schools visited. Many schools reported considerable delays when dealing with hardware failures and particularly with software installation and upgrade. At times, such problems undermined teachers’ efforts to make use of ICT and ultimately impacted on the quality of the learning experience.

    2.2.3 The availability of local technical support varied considerably but ICT technicians and teachers with expertise in this area frequently offered valued support when it was required. In a number of secondary schools, the maintenance of ICT systems often depended on the goodwill of principal teachers of computing who carried out a wide range of tasks over and above their normal work commitments. In the secondary sector, most schools had an in-house technician who could also fulfil this role. There was an issue in some schools of lack of ongoing training for such in-house technical staff. In the primary sector, most schools made effective use of internal expertise to trouble-shoot problems before calling on education authority support.

    3.1 New Opportunities Fund (NOF) ICT training

    3.1.1 The quality of staff development in ICT and its impact on the confidence and competence levels of teachers is one of the most important components in ensuring that ICT becomes, and continues to be, an integrated part of the learning experience of young people.

    3.1.2 From 2000-2003, the NOF training programme for teachers delivered much of the formal ICT training in Scottish schools. At the closing date of the programme, 93% of Scottish teachers had signed up for training. SEED is currently finalising the statistics for completion. Current figures suggest that most of those who signed up also completed their training.

    3.1.3 As was stated in a previous HMIE report: Into the Classroom of Tomorrow2, the overall success of the NOF training programme in EAs and their schools depended on certain very important variables. Of significant importance were the quality of the EA’s direction and management; EA expectations of schools’ involvement in, and completion of, the NOF training; and the level of support afforded by EAs to their schools. Of equal importance were the direction and management of the programme, and the expectations set, at school level. As with much innovation at school level, the commitment of the headteacher was the most important contributing factor to the success of the NOF training programme. Personal commitment to the training at the level of individual teacher was another clear element of success, as was the inclusion of the training in the individual’s continuing professional development and review cycle.

    3.1.4 Into the Classroom of Tomorrow also acknowledged that for at least the first year of the programme, the national quality assurance procedures required the ten Scottish approved NOF training providers to rectify a number of elements in their original programmes, in order to comply with the principles of the NOF training. In some cases, authorities, schools and individuals who opted into the training at an early stage received an inferior quality of training. Following this early stage, some EAs changed training provider or received additional training and support from the same provider, by way of compensation.

    3.1.5 The findings from the sample of schools visited for this report broadly reflected the statements above. They also indicated that staff held mixed feelings about the NOF programme. The programme was generally more successful in the primary than in the secondary sector. Of the sample of schools asked about their views on the programme, the majority felt that overall, the quality of the training had been good. However, in the small survey of secondary schools, as many as one third of the schools felt that it had not been successful in addressing their needs.

    3.1.6 Where the training had been successful, staff identified the key factors as headteacher leadership and commitment, collaborative staff working, the hard work and support of a key member/members of staff, and good quality assistance and support for individual trainees from the training provider.

    3.1.7 Where staff members had become in-house tutors for the training programme, their involvement had often created a team of individuals who remained as a cohesive group to support any further ICT-related professional development within the school.

    3.1.8 The majority of teachers felt that, whatever their reservations about the training, they had gained from their participation in the programme. The identified outcomes included improvements in their general ICT competence; raised awareness of the range of possibilities afforded by ICT; and increased self-confidence, interest and willingness to use ICT in the classroom as part of their normal working. The issue that remained for many was how meaningfully to put these new skills and knowledge into practice, to increase and improve the use of ICT in the classroom. This applied equally at individual teacher, department and whole-school levels. Limitations in access to ICT were a major hindrance for many in practising their ICT skills.

    3.1.9 Those teachers dissatisfied with the programme and who felt that for them it had had minimal impact, raised the following issues about the quality of the training.

    A number of staff expressed the opinion that the purpose and scope of the training had not been well enough explained to them before they entered the programme.
    In particular, they felt that their individual training needs had not always been appropriately identified or addressed. Sometimes the problem lay with the individual misjudging his or her ICT skills level and being therefore wrongly placed within the programme. However, a number of individuals stated that their programme of training had been too general and had focused on the whole of the participant group, regardless of individual background.
    A major problem for the secondary sector was that a number of participants perceived the training as too generic, with insufficient focus on their subject area. In fact, the training generally offered such a focus through the availability of appropriate training support materials. However, teachers saw as an important deficiency the absence of face-to-face training with a specific subject focus, delivered by someone with that subject background. Training providers had been able to offer such provision in only a few cases.
    3.1.10 The views of EAs regarding the NOF training are encapsulated below. These statements are taken from a SEED survey of authorities undertaken at the end of the NOF training programme. Twenty-seven of the 32 authorities’ responses were available for collation. Their responses to the key questions are given below.

    Strongly agree

    The NOF programme has increased the ICT skills of those trained in your authority

    It has made them more aware of the potential of ICT in their work

    It has increased their confidence in knowing when, when not and how to use ICT in their teaching or librarian work

    The training is now having an impact on classroom practice

    The training is having a positive effect on the achievement in your schools

    3.1.11 Many EAs made the point that the impact of the training varied across schools, success depending frequently on the level of commitment and support offered by headteachers and other managers. Some felt that the programme had had more impact in the primary sector.

    3.1.12 When asked to identify the shortcomings of the NOF model, EAs offered a range of observations, the most significant of which are noted below.

    The virtually concurrent implementation of the National Grid for Learning and the NOF training meant that schools’ infrastructures had not always reached an appropriate level to underpin the training.
    EAs did not appropriately integrate the NOF training into thinking about wider curricular change and the professional development agenda.
    Despite encouragement from SEED and the EAs, headteacher support of the initiative at local level was not consistent and this impacted on the final outcomes.
    The NOF training should have covered all staff in schools, including, for example, classroom assistants.
    The conditions of the programme funding should have allowed flexibility to buy staff cover, where appropriate.
    In a number of cases, the training did not offer appropriate differentiation. Some teachers were not stretched by their training; others were over-challenged, given their very low initial skills levels.
    Despite its intention to address pedagogical issues, much of the training programme had had to be directed towards the development of basic ICT skills.
    Funding mechanisms were over-complex.
    3.1.13 When EAs were asked what steps they had taken to build on the NOF training, their responses included the following.

    Some EAs had tried to build purposefully on teachers’ end-of-training NOF action plans, in order to offer appropriate continuing professional development (CPD) in the area of ICT.
    There had been a structured attempt in a number of EAs to involve NOF school-based trainers in the Masterclass 3 initiative, in order to further support the EA’s teachers.
    Some EAs used their intranet to disseminate good practice in ICT through providing further training resources, articles, presentations and lesson plans.
    Many EAs had now produced an ICT strategy and ICT handbook to support headteachers and ICT co-ordinators.
    There had been a general move towards developing further skills-based training, working with specific technologies such as electronic whiteboard and digital video.
    3.2 Further professional development opportunities in ICT

    3.2.1 Where teachers’ further ICT training was viewed as a progressive training experience, building on the NOF or other previous training, ICT developments became well integrated into their classroom practice and pupils’ learning experiences. A key element was ongoing external and in-house support, closely and pragmatically tied to the teacher’s current classroom focus or to a specific curricular unit.

    3.2.2 The schools visited offered a range of ways of achieving such a progression in this area of professional development.

    The inclusion of NOF and other ICT training as a clear focus in the individual’s professional review cycle enabled discussion of the impact of any training initiatives and the setting of new and appropriate targets within the area of ICT.
    Staff who had supported colleagues during the NOF programme had often been able to continue to offer support in terms of offering specific training sessions, for example on PowerPoint or digital video. They had also been able to offer ongoing, informal support and advice on a flexible basis.
    In some of the best practice, particularly in the primary sector, a teacher was allocated time to support ICT developments in the classroom, alongside the class teacher, with a clear focus on supporting and enhancing the delivery of a particular area of the curriculum.
    Where the school had a member of staff trained under the Masterclass initiative, this person could support colleagues, by drawing upon their Masterclass training and general expertise.
    In some secondary schools, managers or an ICT steering group had taken steps to disseminate good practice in ICT across the school or across departments. They also encouraged teachers to discuss ICT purposefully as part of their ongoing broader discussions about learning and teaching.
    4.1. After following 5-14 ICT programmes in primary schools, most pupils took a core skills programme in their first and second years in secondary school. Together, these experiences gave them a broad knowledge base and a range of ICT skills. In most cases, the S1/S2 courses were delivered by business education and/or computing departments, but in a few cases, other departments had become involved in the delivery of these skills. Commendably, some schools had arranged for pupils’ core skills in ICT to be accredited through the Scottish Qualifications Authority (SQA), mostly at Intermediate 1 or 2 levels.

    4.2 The majority of teachers thought that the principal benefit of using ICT as part of the learning process was its potential to motivate young people and thereby ultimately raise their achievement. Some teachers made particular mention of its positive impact on the level of engagement of boys, in that it usually involved a hands-on experience and active involvement in the learning task. It gave many pupils the opportunity to learn in a greater variety of ways, better matched to appropriate learning styles. For example, a science concept could be presented visually through 3D diagrams or animation. A pupil studying a modern language could see, hear, or interact with a native speaker or repeat a segment of language until it was understood.

    4.3 Many pupils enriched their learning experience by using ICT in a range of ways across their learning and across the curriculum. In best practice, in both primary and secondary, the use of ICT allowed pupils to:

    be more individually and actively involved in the learning process;
    be more independent in their learning and make more choices about how and what they learned;
    be able to interact with their learning resources;
    move at an appropriate pace in their learning;
    be challenged in their learning activities;
    consolidate their learning on an individual basis; and
    be more creative in the way that they responded to the learning process.
    4.4 Access by pupils and teachers to ICT equipment had improved considerably since 2000 in almost all the primary schools visited. The impact of the National Grid for Learning (NGfL) and the NOF and other training was greater in this sector than in the secondary sector. In most of the schools visited, the use of ICT had enhanced the quality of learning and teaching, improved pupils’ motivation and resulted in a higher quality of pupil work.

    4.5 Access by pupils and teachers to ICT equipment had also improved considerably since 2000 in almost all secondary schools visited. However, with a small number of commendable exceptions, most secondary schools did not offer pupils broad access to ICT across the curriculum or an appropriately cohesive and progressive experience across the stages.

    4.6 Rural schools used ICT well to address issues arising from their smaller size and often isolated location. They tended to have better computer to pupil ratios. They were beginning to use videoconferencing and online packages to maximise the learning opportunities for pupils, particularly in the upper years of secondary.

    4.7 In some cases, the use of ICT changed the way pupils became involved in, and were responsible for, their own learning. Among the examples were pupils using the Internet to access information, using PowerPoint to present their learning at the end of a unit of work, making use of digital video to present a project, and communicating with other schools by e-mail and via videoconferencing. The increasing use of ICT had brought about many changes in the experiences of current pupils as opposed to earlier cohorts. For many current pupils, using technology was as natural to them as using a textbook or any other learning resource.

    4.8 A common perception is that the use of ICT tends to separate the pupil from his/her peers, in that he/she is working on a one-to-one basis with a machine. However, some schools visited for this report demonstrated how ICT can also involve pupils in collaborative working with their peers. They involved pairs or groups of pupils in problem-solving, planning and presenting findings.

    4.9 A number of senior pupils in the secondary sector used online learning opportunities through the SCHOLAR4 programme to enrich their learning in computing, the sciences, mathematics and French. Staff and pupils regarded the materials as very good. In the schools visited, they were seldom used as courses in themselves, but rather as a very flexible resource which could be used by teachers and pupils to revise or to investigate further key areas of their coursework. One school used the Internet to access university psychology and sociology courses.

    4.10 There was successful use of ICT in the Partners in Excellence (PiE) modern languages initiative in a number of secondary schools, where senior pupils were able to access a good range of relevant resources and communicate with native speakers on the PiE website in four European languages. Pupils involved were motivated by this use of ICT and the attractive and accessible website.

    4.11 Many senior pupils in one secondary school were using a school-based interactive website as a platform to share and exchange information, for example in Higher computing. In one primary school, pupils also used such means to communicate with one another and with another school on a project.

    4.12 Some schools had begun to establish a school intranet where pupils were able to access additional resources to support their learning. Often as part of a whole school approach, departments were beginning to organise their own sites to offer additional support and links to relevant external websites which pupils could further investigate. Some schools enabled pupils to access equipment at lunchtime and in the evening to pursue their studies. More than a few schools used the expertise of senior pupils to set up, maintain and sustain their intranet areas.

    4.13 A few schools had begun to make the school intranet available to pupils outside school hours and also in the community, via a password system. This facility allowed pupils, for example, via e-mail accounts, to receive and return homework electronically. In a very few cases, parents were also able to access the school’s intranet to obtain information about their child’s curriculum and progress.

    4.14 Most schools were at a very early stage of responding to an important consequence of the increase in pupil use of the Internet at all levels. Pupils required support in evaluating and using the immense and often unorganised range of information available through the Internet. Such activities required an appropriate level of knowledge, skills and judgement, now encapsulated in the concept of information literacy. This concept includes the learner's ability to recognise when information is needed, how to locate it, how to analyse it and judge its value, and how to use it effectively as a useful part of his/her learning. Few schools had systematic approaches to developing information literacy to ensure that all pupils acquired this set of skills progressively as part of their passport of core and life skills.

    4.15 In some schools, pupils had opportunities beyond the classroom to use ICT. Senior pupils in one school had used desktop publishing to produce a highly illustrated, annually updated school handbook. Throughout the year in one school, pupils took digital stills and video of a wide range of school and community events, to retain a live record of the school's achievements. This record included a digital video of the school musical. In some primary schools, a group of pupils took charge of the maintenance and development of the school’s website. In one secondary school, a group of sixth year pupils was planning to use digital video as part of their end of school yearbook.

    4.16 Some schools encouraged parents to be aware of the role of ICT in their child’s learning by keeping them informed of developments, offering information evenings and encouraging their involvement in both their child’s skills development but also in the whole school development of ICT. One school's long-term plan was to be "fully interactive" through ICT with pupils, the parent body and the community. The aim was to enable pupils and their parents flexible access to information about the school, the curriculum and programmes of work. The system already allowed pupils to access extra work and information on relevant websites for certain subject areas. Among examples of good liaison with parents were the following.

    In one primary school, pupils created a digital video presentation for parents of pupils entering the school in P1 to introduce them to the school and tell them about its work.
    In the same school, staff issued class newsletters outlining what work would be done in the coming term. These newsletters included suggestions for useful websites for home use to support pupils’ work.
    Most of the points listed under the foregoing section on learning apply to teaching also. However, some aspects of the impact of ICT apply more specifically to the quality of teaching.

    5.1 General comment

    5.1.1 One of the most common uses of ICT by teachers was to use a data projector and PowerPoint or similar package to enhance their presentation of new work. Presentations were often visually attractive and could be used in a flexible way. Teachers were also able to develop and revise such materials more easily. This technology was used in both the primary and secondary sectors, but was more prevalent in the secondary schools visited. In a number of schools, it led to efficient sharing of materials and more consistent delivery across staff. The use of these tools in lessons often encouraged a better quality of questioning and interaction between teacher and learners, in that pupils were not looking down at books or worksheets, but focused collaboratively as a class on a single information source.

    5.1.2 Some schools were beginning to make use of interactive whiteboards, which allowed the teacher a very flexible use of his/her resources. Many teachers were still exploring the potential of this technology. Some involved pupils effectively in exploiting the interactive possibilities. This was an area of significant potential in that it allowed pupils to take more of a lead in the learning process as they interacted with the information on screen.

    5.1.3 A number of teachers made increasing and effective use of the Internet to download materials either to incorporate into their bank of resources or for their pupils to use as part of their research sources.

    5.2 Effective use of ICT in a number of primary schools

    5.2.1 In almost all the primary schools visited, the use of ICT had enhanced the quality of teaching and improved pupils’ motivation.

    5.2.2 In the best practice, teachers integrated the use of ICT into their plans across the curriculum and there was a clear sense of progression in the development of pupils’ ICT skills across the stages. In most cases, such practice was linked to the effective timetabling of facilities, making flexible use of machines in classrooms and/or in a computer suite.

    5.2.3 Some schools used interactive software packages effectively to improve pupils’ literacy and numeracy skills. Such packages offered the teacher a highly structured programme and offered pupils ongoing information on their performance.

    5.2.4 Among the most common uses of ICT in the primary schools visited was wordprocessing, used by pupils to create redrafted versions of English language work or to present work in a variety of curricular areas. Their listening and talking skills were also developed effectively in some schools through making their presentations using PowerPoint. In one school, P3 pupils practised their writing skills by sending e-mails to the main character in the novel they were reading.

    5.2.5 Many pupils were developing a good level of skill in using ICT to present the results of information-handling work in mathematics, through creating a range of graphs on screen. Some were developing appropriate skills with databases and spreadsheets. In one class, pupils used the interactive whiteboard to solve problems set in the context of geometric shapes, by drawing solutions directly on to the board, and receiving immediate feedback on their accuracy.

    5.2.6 Pupils in one school worked online with two other schools as part of a continuing inter-school science project. Pupils accessed websites such as www.brainpop.com/science, spacekids.hq.nasa.gov and www.scienceweb.org.uk in the course of their science programme. They used video microscopes connected to computers to examine and photograph specimens, viewing them together on the computer monitor.

    5.2.7 A number of pupils exhibited confidence in using basic graphics packages to create images that enhanced their written work and presentations. In one case, senior pupils were adept at creating animations and using video capture. They worked on animations involving stop film digital photography and used titles, props, background and characters that they had created themselves. Senior pupils in another primary school worked with P1 children to teach them how to use an ICT-based drawing package which the senior pupils themselves had used when they were in the early stages classes.

    5.2.8 In physical education in one school, pupils participated in a dance project which involved them in writing their own music and devising dance routines to a background of their own projected designs. Pupils used digital video cameras and data projectors in their dance and drama studio to examine and improve their own work in aspects of physical education.

    5.2.9 Most senior pupils in the primary sector were able to undertake some form of research using the Internet. Although many schools were developing pupils’ research, editing and keyboarding skills, most did not have sufficiently well developed information literacy skills to make the most focused use of the Internet’s resources.

    5.2.10 In terms of personal and social development, a feature of one primary school was the way it used ICT to promote pupils' self-esteem and citizenship skills. The school encouraged pupils to be involved in a number of co-operative ventures with other schools, including a major European project, as part of the Comenius initiative. They had made several short digital video presentations which they exchanged with pupils in other schools in Europe. P7 pupils in another school had put together a PowerPoint slideshow to present their case for improvements to the school building and grounds to representatives from the local education authority. Another school made effective use of ICT to value and celebrate pupils’ achievements. For example, within minutes of pupils being presented with an award for good work, staff photographed them using digital photography and their images and relevant text then featured on the display screen at the entrance to the school.

    5.2.11 In enterprise education, a group of senior pupils in one primary school selected a piece of art work produced by their fellow pupils in school to make into the school's Christmas card, digitally enhancing the art work. They then set up their own company to manufacture multiple copies of the card to sell to parents and the wider community.

    5.3 Effective use of ICT in a number of secondary subject areas

    5.3.1 In art and design, one department had set up a school intranet site where examples of good practice from current and past pupils were displayed. In another school, a similar initiative had developed into an "Online Gallery" on the Internet. Many departments increasingly made use of software to produce design projects and to manipulate and combine images. Many pupils made use of the Internet for research purposes. One principal teacher had placed much of his course materials on CD ROM to allow pupils flexible access to the resources and encourage greater responsibility. Digital cameras were frequently used to record work in progress and chart stages in the design process.

    5.3.2 In most business education departments, pupils made good use of computers as part of their normal working. Some pupils made effective use of PowerPoint or similar packages to prepare presentations as part of their coursework. Some S1/S2 classes made independent use of packages to increase their keyboard and wordprocessing skills.

    5.3.3 In English, a number of departments encouraged pupils to complete their writing folios on computer, although sufficiently flexible access to machines remained an issue in some schools. A number also made use of software packages to enable pupils to self-pace through a programme of exercises designed to improve specific language skills, such as close reading. Such packages allowed teachers to monitor progress, and pupils to sense progress and identify areas for further development.

    5.3.4 Some home economics departments made very effective use of the digital camera to record live cookery sessions. Many pupils made effective use of the Internet for research purposes and used PowerPoint to present their work to their fellow pupils.

    5.3.5 In mathematics, pupils made extensive use of graphic calculators. As in English, a number of departments made use of software packages to enable pupils to self-pace through a programme of exercises designed to improve specific mathematics skills. Some teachers made use of PowerPoint to enrich their presentation of a number of mathematical areas, including graphs, with the effect of improving pupils’ comprehension. Some schools were beginning to make good use of interactive whiteboards, which was benefiting the clarity of explanations and increasing the pace of learning.

    5.3.6 In modern languages, teachers made use of a number of Internet websites that provided an interesting range of activities for all stages. Where the technology was available, teachers made effective use of CDROM packages and interactive whiteboard technology to enable pupils to take part in language games and activities. They also used PowerPoint to present new language in a more attractive way. Some departments used the digital camera to film pupils in live practice of their chosen language.

    5.3.7 Many music departments made effective use of multimedia to offer pupils access to professional-level packages, and enable them to invent music in a flexible and creative way. Digital recording and editing supported this facility. One school also made effective use of PowerPoint to show pupils chord structures linked to the appropriate audio tracks.

    5.3.8 In personal and social education, guidance departments made good use of a range of interactive software packages and websites to enhance curricular and vocational guidance, careers education and preparation for work experience. The provision of on-screen information and case studies lent a new dimension to certain aspects. For example, the use of CD ROMs in a few schools allowed pupils highly focused individual access to specific health education materials.

    5.3.9 A number of physical education departments used digital video to enable pupils to examine closely their practice in particular sports activities and discuss with fellow pupils and their teacher how to improve their performance.

    5.3.10 In the sciences, departments made good use of data-logging, interfacing and computer-linked microscopes in practical work. Increasingly, teachers made use of on-screen simulations so that pupils could have access to a greater variety of experiments and to experiments in which there was an element of danger. Both teachers and pupils made use of PowerPoint for presentation purposes. In all of the sciences these were examples of good use of SCHOLAR for investigative work and revision purposes.

    5.3.11 In the social subjects, departments made much use of the Internet to enable pupils to carry out individual or group research. As in other subject areas, some teachers downloaded these activities on to a CD ROM to avoid network problems for pupils exploring the resources. Teachers also made good use of data projectors and PowerPoint to enrich the quality of presentations and allow pupils to self-pace through a new topic. Some pupils carried out effective research on local politics on the local council website and wordprocessed an information leaflet. Others prepared PowerPoint presentations to show to their class. These presentations were then placed on the school intranet to act as "role model" presentations and as sources of information for future students.

    5.3.12 A number of support for learning staff spoke positively about the contribution of ICT in supporting the learning of pupils experiencing a range of difficulties. They cited as key elements of the impact specialised laptops and other computers, and pupils’ engagement with a good range of software. The use of computers often allowed a better focus on the individual’s needs and increased pupil motivation and involvement through the use of activities and games which offered feedback, encouragement and reward. The use of more specific software such as electronic books and voice recognition was also regarded as valuable.

    5.3.13 In technical education, a few departments made good use of their intranet shared area to enable pupils to access course resources and additional materials, and explore relevant hyperlinks. As in the sciences, some departments made good use of on-screen simulation to enable pupils to understand the workings of various technologies. Various computer-aided design (CAD) and control technology packages were also common features of departments’ provision.

    6.1 There were constructive developments in many schools’ use of ICT in administration. One of the most evident was the increasing development in the secondary sector of information management systems to track and record pupil progress. In some schools, this process was directly related to target-setting, where it allowed managers, teachers and guidance staff to focus on pupil progress through individual units of work leading to national assessment. A few schools used the electronic system as a main point of reference for discussion with pupils on their progress. A number of schools were beginning to use electronic systems to record attendance.

    6.2 In one school, teachers used an online referral system to record low-level misbehaviour or other minor problems within class. This system allowed guidance staff and managers to maintain an overview of any developing issues and to take swift and appropriate action as required. They also used the system to enable teachers to record a range of positive referrals. This development allowed managers and guidance staff to congratulate pupils on achievement or to reinforce good behaviour through "praise e-mails".

    6.3 Some schools were beginning to use e-mail as an effective means of communication among all staff. Managers had found that such an everyday use of the technology encouraged greater confidence and competence in all staff.

    6.4 Teachers in one primary school submitted their forward planners electronically. The school had plans to extend the school's intranet, which at present contained a number of relevant policies, to include these forward plans.

    6.5 A few schools had developed an effective school website which allowed them to present key documents such as the school handbook, policies, news and other information useful to parents and others. In one case, visitors to the school were greeted by a large screen on which were projected website images, photographs and text, celebrating the pupils' and staff's achievements and creativity.

    7.1 All schools visited had made ICT a substantial part of their development plans in recent years, notably concerning staff development through the NOF initiative and planning for the NGfL roll-out of equipment. Most schools were now at varying stages of shifting their focus towards the integration of ICT in everyday learning and teaching. In the best practice, this focus was achieved through targeting certain key areas which are summarised in the following paragraphs.

    7.2 A number of schools had established an ICT steering group or working party. The role of this group varied somewhat from school to school but in most cases focused on the provision and distribution of equipment, the siting of new equipment and the use made of ICT by both pupils and staff. In a few schools, this group also had a quality assurance role relating to the quality of use of ICT across the school.

    7.3 Some secondary schools had attempted to gauge the current use of ICT in classrooms through the issue of questionnaires to principal teachers / heads of faculty and teachers. These questionnaires covered current teacher competence and confidence and the use of ICT across various subjects and units of work. The returns enabled managers to measure the balance of ICT use across staff and across departments. In turn, this assisted managers in targeting further professional development and resources. In the secondary sector, some headteachers highlighted the role of principal teacher as pivotal in managing the integration of ICT into learning and teaching. The role of the principal teacher / head of faculty in leading or supporting developments in ICT was underdeveloped in more than a few of the schools visited.

    7.4 A number of schools ensured that discussion of professional development in ICT was included as part of the professional review cycle, as managers sought to build on the levels of competence and confidence that had resulted from the NOF and other training. These schools also offered their staff support and further training in specific areas to consolidate their skills and to better integrate these into classroom practice. The teachers who had supported their colleagues formally during NOF training frequently continued to do so in a more informal way. Those teachers who had received Masterclass training also used their expertise in a support role within their own schools.

    7.5 In some schools, managers supported professional development by encouraging staff to visit other schools to observe good practice. In one case, visits extended to other parts of the UK and even Europe.

    7.6 One secondary school had established a teachers' conference area on its intranet. This area was a direct source of relevant CPD. For example, the school had established direct links to national websites of interest to all staff. The support for learning department had also set up general information for staff on a range of issues such as dyslexia and autism. It also shared on the intranet common strategies that teachers would find successful with specific pupils.

    7.7 Some schools had carried out a survey of pupil skills and competence. Pupils had been asked where they felt they were most effectively using ICT within their learning. The results of such surveys offered a different perspective on ICT developments within the school and afforded insights into the progressive development of ICT skills in young people. These questionnaires also attempted to gauge the extent to which pupils’ skills were developed and exploited outside the school environment. Most schools had yet to exploit these skills which in many young people were highly developed, yet underplayed in most school contexts. Many schools did not yet fully understand the range and level of their pupils’ ICT skills. They rarely allowed pupils to be more independent in their use of ICT and offered insufficient contexts for them to be creative in the way they used ICT in their learning.

    7.8 Some schools had taken steps to disseminate and encourage good practice across the various stages or departments in a measured and supportive way. One secondary school had asked each department to set itself a target over a session of establishing one or two units of work with effective use of ICT. It then placed the resulting good practice on the school’s intranet. Another school expected every department to make a departmental contribution to the school’s intranet or external website. Some headteachers also encouraged staff to include ICT as a component of ongoing discussions about pedagogy during whole school review sessions.

    7.9 In monitoring the impact of ICT on the quality of learning and teaching and the degree of integration across the school, some of the schools visited had made use of Measurement of the Impact of ICT on Children’s Education (MIICE), a nationally available toolkit of quality indicators. They had found the self-evaluation toolkit a valuable support mechanism in flexibly exploring a wide range of ICT areas.

    7.10 Schools recognised that it was crucial to monitor the integration of ICT as it developed across a school. However, there were only a few examples of establishments where monitoring was suitably systematic. Good practice in the monitoring of ICT in the classroom included:

    the broad audit mechanisms mentioned above, investigating pupil and staff skills and examining the integration of ICT in learning and teaching;
    a focus on access to, and the use made of, ICT suites and resources based in classrooms or bases;
    a review of ICT technical support needs;
    a specific focus on the use being made of new technology such as data projectors, interactive whiteboards, wireless technology and new software, to explore impact and value for money; and
    discussions with stage or departmental teachers and pupils to explore the integration of ICT, both current and proposed.
    7.11 A few schools had begun the process of encouraging their teachers to be reflective practitioners in the way that they used ICT. These establishments felt that the integration of ICT would be most effectively achieved where teachers had ongoing opportunities to discuss the use of technology within a broader focus on learning, teaching and meeting their pupils’ needs.

    Schools identified a number of concerns as potentially hindering further progress with their integration of ICT. These concerns included the following issues which were more or less significant for each school, depending on the context of individual school management and the education authority framework.

    8.1 A number of headteachers and teachers had concerns about:

    the costs of refreshing equipment;
    the lack of appropriate flexible access to ICT within the school, particularly in the secondary sector - a major source of frustration for a number of teachers;
    technical difficulties that at times hampered the successful use of ICT and undermined teachers’ long-term commitment to its use, for example the capacity of servers and the reliability of school networks;
    the limitations of finance to sustain an appropriate level of technical support to maintain equipment at all times;
    the filtering system within the school hindering effective staff and pupil access to internet materials;
    financing the purchase of more data projectors and interactive whiteboards, to allow both teachers and pupils wider and more appropriate in-class access to ICT.
    the cost of purchasing sufficient individual software licences, which could hinder a school from integrating certain materials into its coursework;
    the limited availability of exemplification and modelling of good practice specific to certain curricular areas and subjects, both within schools and education authorities and across the country; and
    schools’ capacity to develop in young people a better level of information literacy skills to enable them to exploit appropriately the ICT available to them.
    The national context

    9.1 The last HMIE report on ICT of January 2000 stated that the ever-increasing pace of development in ICT presented the education system with a challenge to develop a capacity for change that would ensure a quick and flexible response to new opportunities. This pace of change and development in ICT has not decreased in the intervening time. The report presented a list of recommendations, identifying a range of actions required and the related roles and responsibilities at national, EA and school levels. EAs and schools have responded to national developments and begun to develop this capacity for change. There are some very good examples of clear management of ICT at whole school levels and of innovative practice in learning and teaching. This report has attempted to collate some of these examples. However, a number of the recommendations of the previous report have not yet been sufficiently addressed and there is a need for a more consistent approach across all schools, to enable young people to access and use ICT in a meaningful and progressive way across their learning.

    9.2 Over the last five years, ICT has come into much clearer focus in schools across Scotland. The NGfL roll-out has made a substantial contribution towards ensuring that schools are appropriately equipped in ICT terms. For a wide variety of reasons, the NOF ICT training programme did not deliver the full range of intended objectives for all participants. However, it improved teachers’ general ICT competence. It also raised awareness of the range of possibilities afforded by ICT, and raised many teachers’ self-confidence, interest and willingness to use ICT in the classroom as part of their normal working. SEED has supported national seminars to encourage a common understanding among education authorities and school managers of their roles and responsibilities. The annual Scottish Education and Teaching in Technology (SETT) event has also encouraged valuable exemplification from a range of practitioners on a number of fronts.

    9.3 The Scottish Executive has now completed the second phase of its ICT development plans. It has implemented the Masterclass initiative, through which over 600 teachers, education authority personnel and representatives from teacher education have been trained to a high standard of ICT awareness and skills. SEED has also supported regular separate recall meetings of Masterclass individuals and education authority representatives. It has also launched the Leadership for Learning training programme. In the first tranche of training, over 400 headteachers have already been trained.

    9.4 In the broader national context, the Scottish Executive’s publication in November 2004 of A Curriculum for Excellence and the current national curriculum review have focused the attention of educationalists on the purposes of education and on how the curriculum should enable young people to develop certain key capacities in their lives. ICT has a key role in developing successful learners, with an enthusiasm for learning and an ability to think and learn independently and to use technology effectively. It can assist in developing confident individuals and effective contributors who have independent access to a wealth of information, through which they can develop and then communicate their own beliefs and views of the world. ICT can also support young people in becoming responsible citizens by giving them access to a wide range of political and cultural information which will help them to evaluate, for example, environmental issues and ultimately make informed choices.

    9.5 With plans for the next key stage of ICT national development - The Scottish Schools Digital Network (SSDN) — now well under way, the challenge for Scotland is to maintain the momentum in ICT which has built up over the last few years. Progressive ICT skills development in young people is an important component of their future core and life skills. Education authorities need to consistently play their part in planning and supporting ICT developments in their schools. Headteachers and school managers need to demonstrate a clearer leadership in this area. It is important too that teachers, as part of their continuing professional development, continue to build on the skills they have achieved and also show leadership in purposefully developing this particular strand of the learning experience.

    Key features underpinning good practice

    9.6 The findings of this report reflect views already held by a number of the managers in the schools visited. The following are key features which underpin good practice and ensure that ICT remains a strong, integral and developing part of every school's working.

    The ongoing commitment of the education authority to ensure appropriate infrastructure and technical support, provide continuing professional development and advice and disseminate good practice.
    The vision of the headteacher and his or her commitment to:
    the role of ICT in delivering young people’s education and supporting the organisation of the school; and
    the development of a school where creativity and open-mindedness are valued and enhanced through the use of ICT.
    The commitment of a designated and skilled senior manager to manage, lead, support and encourage ICT developments in a range of flexible ways. Technical expertise or ready access to it were also important attributes.
    The creation and encouragement of an appropriate staff ethos where the potential of ICT is understood, staff are responsive to it, and innovation is supported. This includes:
    the concept of recognising and supporting leadership in ICT at all levels within the staff,
    the encouragement of a commitment, enthusiasm and expertise at all levels within a school, in both teaching and non-teaching staff, and also among pupils, parents and others in the community.
    The focus of teachers on their responsibility:
    to develop their pupils' knowledge of ICT and their awareness of its potential;
    to encourage in pupils a flexible approach to the use of ICT across their current learning; and
    to prepare young people to exploit the future opportunities presented to them in the framework of the world of work and lifelong learning.
    A common and understood benchmark of staff training and awarenes



    Empowerment is a construct shared by many disciplines and arena: community development, psychology, education, economics and studies of social movements and organizations among others. How empowerment is understood varies among these perspectives. In recent empowerment literature, the meaning of the term empowerment is often assumed rather than explained or defined. Rappoport (1984) has noted that it is easy to define empowerment by its absence but difficult to define in action as it takes on different forms in different people and contexts. Even defining the concept is subject to debate. Zimmerman (1984) has stated that asserting a single definition of empowerment may make attempts to achieve it formulaie or prescription like, contradicting the very concept of empowerment.

    A common understanding of empowerment is necessary, however, to allow us to know empowerment when we see it in people with whom we are working and for program evaluation. According to Bailey (1992) how we precisely define empowerment within projects and programs will depend upon the specific people and context involved.

    As a general definition, however, we suggest that empowerment is a multi-dimensional social process that helps people gain control over their own lives. It is a process that fosters power (that is, the capacity to implement) in people, for use in their own lives, their communities, and in their society, by acting on issues that they define as important.

    We suggest that three components of our definition are basic to any understanding of empowerment.

    Empowerment is multi-dimensional: It occurs within sociological, psychological, economic, and other dimensions. Empowerment also occurs at various levels such as individual, group, and community.

    Empowerment by definition, is a social process, since it occurs in relationship to others.

    Empowerment is a process that is similar to a path or journey, one that develops as we work through it. Other aspects of empowerment may vary according to the specific context and people involved, but these (multi-dimensional, social and as a process) remain constant. In addition, one important implication of this definition of empowerment is that the individual and community are fundamentally connected.

    Interconnection of individuals and community Wilson (1996) pointed out that recently, more researchers, organizers, politicians and employers recognize that individual change is a prerequisite for community and social change and empowerment. This does not mean that we can point the finger(s) at those with less access to power, telling them that they must change to become more like “us” in order to be powerful/successful. Rather, individual change becomes a bridge to community connectedness and social change.

    To create change we must change individually to enable us to become partners in solving the complex issues facing us. In collaborations based on mutual respect, diverse perspectives, and a developing vision, people work toward creative and realistic solutions. This synthesis of individual and collective change is our understanding of an empowerment process. We see this inclusive individual and collective understanding of empowerment as crucial in programs with empowerment as a goal. It is in the critical transition or interconnection, between the individual and the communal or social, that programs such as ‘people empowering people’, can be invaluable for people and communities.

    Community empowerment therefore involves individuals acting collectively to gain greater influence and control over the determinants of health and the quality of life in their community, and is an important goal in community action for health.

    Underlying principles:
    The core principles focus attention on the “community” aspects of community benefit, and on the health system’s role in a lager web of organizations and people responsible for helping to ensure the public’s health. In summary, the principles are:

    1. Emphasize disproportionate unmet health-related needs.
    2. Emphasize primary prevention
    3. Build a seamless continuum of care
    4. Build community capacity; and
    5. Emphasize collaborative governance.

    Areas of concern may include:
    (a) Health- immunization, mortality rate, communicable diseases i.e,, eye diseases, HIV/AIDs, diarrhoera and malnutrition could easily be dealt with by use of team work. Also access to safe water and sanitation

    (b) Agricultural support
    (c) Having access roads
    (d) Revolving Credit Fund
    (e) Coordination and management of all social activities. With empowerment all these
    can run smoothly and can bring about positive change in our communities.

    With empowerment all these can run smoothly and can bring about positive change in our communities.

    N.B. In conclusion, we see empowerment as a multi-dimensional social process that helps people gain control over their own lives. It is a process that fosters power in people for use in their own lives, their communities, and their society by acting on issues that they define as important. People are taught skills and knowledge that will motivate them to take steps to improve their own lives – to be empowered.

    Citizenship Participation:

    Effective citizenship means, at its simplest, members of local communities being ready, willing and able to get involved in local issues. This is not simply about people having the opportunity to participate, but also about possessing the skills, knowledge and confidence they need to take part.

    Harnessing the insights, perspectives and talents of local people can improve services, the quality of democracy, and the legitimacy of council leadership. There can benefit is to participants, too. As well as contributing to improving the quality of life of their community, getting involved in local affairs can provide individuals with opportunities to acquire training, skills and give them pathways into education and employment.

    In recognition of these potential benefits, policy-makers at local and national level have taken an increasing interest in encouraging people to re-connect with government and participate in local decisions. In recent years local authorities have made huge strides in engaging with the public. Large numbers have adopted residents and user surveys, citizens panels, citizens juries, focus groups, neighborhood and area forums, to mention but just a few. E.g. when 255 of the tax collected at Sub County levels is brought back down to villages. It is up to the members within the given villages to decide how to spend. If any projects are to be conducted in communities, community participation is greatly called for. But simply providing opportunities for the public to participate only goes so far. Despite using a growing range of consultation and participation techniques, more than half of residents believe that their local council has not consulted them in the past year. And there is much more that can be done to draw marginalized and vulnerable people to local decision-making. It is therefore important to find new ways of increasing people’s capacity or desire to become more involved. This can be best done by governments, councils or any authority in consultation with professionals who can help put in place effective approaches.

    • Effective communication – giving people the information and knowledge they need to understand local decision – making structures, but also taking steps to simplify the knowledge required, either by bringing together information on opportunities to engage or by combining opportunities into a single process.

    • Capacity building – training and practical support that strengthen the existing skills, knowledge and confidence of individuals, community groups and council personnel to get involved in decision-making and develop solutions. This could include skills in communication, diversity issues, conflict resolution or community leadership.

    Promoting cultural change – This means cultivating a belief in the value of collective action to address social problems and improve the quality of life; for councils, it means learning to operate in ways that are responsible to citizen input, and showing participants that their involvement is valued.

    Address the wider context. It is critical that local authorities pay attention to wider issues which may affect people’s propensity to get involved, such as the condition of the voluntary sector and community groups in their area, race relations and the representation of marginalized groups on decision-making forums.

    Partnership working: Promoting effective citizenship requires genuine collaboration between councils and a range of other public, private, voluntary and community sector organizations. As part owners of the citizenship agenda, schools, N.G.Os, and local community groups can all make significant contributions. When all these different organizations work in partnership, there is more scope for improving practice by learning from each other, and to deliver more effective learning opportunities. Thus, shared processes of organizational learning stands to be an important factor for effective citizenship.

    Building on what’s already there:
    In designing learning opportunities for citizenship, councils can usefully start from where people are at in terms of their life situation, experience, confidence and interest, and allow them to shape their own learning experiences. Recognize where particular communities already have assets and skills and build upon these.

    In designing citizenship education activities, practitioners should remember that existing networks, umbrella groups and community organizations can provide knowledge and contacts, and maybe well placed to deliver information and capacity building to their members.

    Community development is a direct byproduct of empowerment and effective citizenship participation. Where communities are empowered and citizenship participation encouraged, high levels of community development are achieved.

    Local action planning:- any process whereby the members of a community work together to produce a plan, especially insetting priorities for community strategies and local development frame works. Such activities offer a focused setting for the development of skills, confidence and experience indecision making processes at local level building the capacity for neighborhood governance.

    Qualitative change:
    In the end, effective citizenship is about better democratic outcomes, whether that is achieving social change, challenging inequalities or promoting sustainable communities. Measuring whether people feel more empowered can require qualitative information, including careful assessment of people’s individual development as well as tracking participants to assess how far they and the groups they represent are accessing power structures.

    Tracking personal development staff working closely with sections of the public maybe able to identify signs of personal learning as individuals progress from simply participating in initiatives, to facilitating events and workshops, to becoming peer educators or deepening their involvement in civic life in other ways. Staff involved in user forums may be able to report on the quantity, social complexions and quality of public involvement in their service.

    In summary community development cannot be enhanced without empowerment and citizenship participation. These are two key factors which must come into play if any development is to be experienced anywhere. It is now the role of those aware of this fact to educate others about the same and make sure that development in our local communities is highly promoted, for a “health” living in this world.

    The Difference Between Management And Leadership
    Leadership and management are two notions that are often used interchangeably. However, these words actually describe two different concepts. In this section, we shall discuss these differences and explain why both terms are thought to be similar.

    Leadership is a facet of management
    Leadership is just one of the many assets a successful manager must possess. Care must be taken in distinguishing between the two concepts. The main aim of a manager is to maximise the output of the organisation through administrative implementation. To achieve this, managers must undertake the following functions:
    • organisation
    • planning
    • staffing
    • directing
    • controlling
    Leadership is just one important component of the directing function. A manager cannot just be a leader, he also needs formal authority to be effective. "For any quality initiative to take hold, senior management must be involved and act as a role model. This involvement cannot be delegated."
    In some circumstances, leadership is not required. For example, self motivated groups may not require a single leader and may find leaders dominating. The fact that a leader is not always required proves that leadership is just an asset and is not essential.
    Differences In Perspectives
    Managers think incrementally, whilst leaders think radically. "Managers do things right, while leaders do the right thing." [2]. This means that managers do things by the book and follow company policy, while leaders follow their own intuition, which may in turn be of more benefit to the company. A leader is more emotional than a manager . "Men are governed by their emotions rather than their intelligence" . This quotation illustrates why teams choose to follow leaders.
    "Leaders stand out by being different. They question assumption and are suspicious of tradition. They seek out the truth and make decisions based on fact, not prejudice. They have a preference for innovation."

    Subordinate As A Leader
    Often with small groups, it is not the manager who emerges as the leader. In many cases it is a subordinate member with specific talents who leads the group in a certain direction. "Leaders must let vision, strategies, goals, and values be the guide-post for action and behaviour rather than attempting to control others."
    When a natural leader emerges in a group containing a manager, conflict may arise if they have different views. When a manager sees the group looking towards someone else for leadership he may feel his authority is being questioned.
    Groups are often more loyal to a leader than a manager. This loyalty is created by the leader taking responsibility in areas such as:
    • Taking the blame when things go wrong.
    • Celebrating group achievements, even minor ones.
    • Giving credit where it is due.
    "The leader must take a point of highlighting the successes within a team, using charts or graphs, with little presentations and fun ideas"
    "Leaders are observant and sensitive people. They know their team and develop mutual confidence within it"
    The Leader Is Followed. The Manager Rules
    A leader is someone who people naturally follow through their own choice, whereas a manager must be obeyed. A manager may only have obtained his position of authority through time and loyalty given to the company, not as a result of his leadership qualities. A leader may have no organisational skills, but his vision unites people behind him.

    Management Knows How It Works
    Management usually consists of people who are experienced in their field, and who have worked their way up the company. A manager knows how each layer of the system works and may also possess a good technical knowledge. A leader can be a new arrival to a company who has bold, fresh, new ideas but might not have experience or wisdom.
    Managing and leading are two different ways of organising people. The manager uses a formal, rational method whilst the leader uses passion and stirs emotions. William Wallace is one excellent example of a brilliant leader but could never be thought of as the manager of the Scorts!

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